Identification of yeast strains isolated from marcha in Sikkim, a microbial starter for amylolytic fermentation

Experimental Farm, Shinshu University, Shonai, Nagano, Japan
International Journal of Food Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.08). 04/2005; 99(2):135-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.08.011
Source: PubMed


Marcha or murcha is a traditional amylolytic starter used to produce sweet-sour alcoholic drinks, commonly called jaanr in the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet (China). The aim of this study was to examine the microflora of marcha collected from Sikkim in India, focusing on yeast flora and their roles. Twenty yeast strains were isolated from six samples of marcha and identified by genetic and phenotypic methods. They were first classified into four groups (Group I, II, III, and IV) based on physiological features using an API test. Phylogenetic, morphological, and physiological characterization identified the isolates as Saccharomyces bayanus (Group I); Candida glabrata (Group II); Pichia anomala (Group III); and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Saccharomycopsis capsularis, and Pichia burtonii (Group IV). Among them, the Group I, II, and III strains produced ethanol. The isolates of Group IV had high amylolytic activity. Because all marcha samples tested contained both starch degraders and ethanol producers, it was hypothesized that all four groups of yeast (Group I, II, III, and IV) contribute to starch-based alcohol fermentation.

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    • "Generally, fermentation starters prepared from the growth of molds on raw or cooked cereals, called mold bran is more commonly practiced (Lee, 1999). In the Himalayan regions of India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet (China), Marcha or murcha (traditional amylolytic starter) is used to produce sweet-sour alcoholic drinks, commonly called jand which contains saccharifying molds, lactic acid bacteria and fermenting yeasts which is used for isolation of mold, yeast and bacteria (Tsuyoshi, 2005). Mold bran is an enzyme product obtained by growing Aspergillus oryzae or other mold on moist, sterilized bran. "

    06/2014; 7. DOI:10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10597
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    • "It is a haploid, petite-positive yeast and is a species considered quite similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Barns et al., 1991; Davenport et al., 1995). Candida glabrata is used in the food industry as a starter culture (Tsuyoshi et al., 2005; Aidoo et al., 2006), and it also appears as the second most prevalent Candida species in patients with HIV and patients with advanced cancer (Li et al., 2007). While many studies on the effect of hypo-osmotic stress have been carried out on Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Granot & Snyder, 1991, 1993; Kayingo et al., 2001; Arias et al., 2011), there have been few studies on Candida species. "
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    ABSTRACT: Candida glabrata cells suspended in water are under hypo-osmotic stress and undergo cell death in 1-2 days, unless they are at a density of more than 10(5 ) CFU mL(-1) . The dying cells exhibit FITC-annexin V staining, indicative of programmed cell death (apoptosis). In a higher cell density, cells are protected and survive at least for 4 days. Filtrates from cells at high density can protect those at lower density, indicating that cells release substances, amounting to c. 5 mg L(-1) of cell suspension, that protect each other against hypo-osmotic stress. In a concentrated form, the released materials can support growth, indicating that the protective material includes carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as vitamins that are required by C. glabrata for growth. We conclude that cell death from hypo-osmotic stress can be alleviated by small amounts of nutrients.
    FEMS Yeast Research 11/2013; 14(3). DOI:10.1111/1567-1364.12122 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    • "The most well-known and commercially significant yeasts that been primarily used for bioethanol production are the related species and strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [4]. These organisms have long been utilized to ferment the sugars of rice, wheat, barley, and corn to produce alcoholic beverages and in the backing industry [5]. One yeast cell can ferment approximately its own weight of glucose per hour. "

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