The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) signaling pathway is frequently aberrantly activated in glioblastoma multiforme (GM) by mutation or loss of the 3' phospholipid phosphatase PTEN. PTEN abnormalities result in inappropriate signaling to downstream molecules including protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). PI3-kinase activation increases resistance to radiation-induced cell death; conversely, PI3-kinase inhibition enhances the sensitivity of tumors to radiation. The effects of LY294002, a biochemical inhibitor of PI3-kinase, on the response to radiation were examined in the PTEN mutant glioma cell line U251 MG. Low doses of LY294002 sensitized U251 MG to clinically relevant doses of radiation. In contrast to LY294002, rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, did not result in radiosensitization. We demonstrate that among multiple known targets of LY294002, PI3-kinase is the most likely molecule responsible for LY294002-induced radiosensitization. Furthermore, using a myristoylated PKB/Akt construct, we identified PKB/Akt as the downstream molecule that mediates the synergistic cytotoxicity between LY294002 and radiation. Thus PI3-kinase dysregulation may contribute to the notable radioresistance of GM tumors and inhibition of PKB/Akt offers an excellent target to enhance radiosensitivity.
"Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of Akt has been shown to increase radiosensitivity of glioblastoma in vitro (23, 24). We have previously shown that irradiation of tumor endothelium leads to increased production of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), which in turn catalyzes the production of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (24). LPC can function as a secondary messenger in a variety of signaling pathways, including the Akt/PKB pathway (25, 26). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive primary brain tumor that is radio-resistant and recurs despite aggressive surgery, chemo, and radiotherapy. Autotaxin (ATX) is over expressed in various cancers including GBM and is implicated in tumor progression, invasion, and angiogenesis. Using the ATX specific inhibitor, PF-8380, we studied ATX as a potential target to enhance radiosensitivity in GBM.
Methods and Materials: Mouse GL261 and Human U87-MG cells were used as GBM cell models. Clonogenic survival assays and tumor transwell invasion assays were performed using PF-8380 to evaluate role of ATX in survival and invasion. Radiation dependent activation of Akt was analyzed by immunoblotting. Tumor induced angiogenesis was studied using the dorsal skin fold model in GL261. Heterotopic mouse GL261 tumors were used to evaluate the efficacy of PF-8380 as a radiosensitizer.
Results: Pre-treatment of GL261 and U87-MG cells with 1 μM PF-8380 followed by 4 Gy irradiation resulted in decreased clonogenic survival, decreased migration (33% in GL261; P = 0.002 and 17.9% in U87-MG; P = 0.012), decreased invasion (35.6% in GL261; P = 0.0037 and 31.8% in U87-MG; P = 0.002), and attenuated radiation-induced Akt phosphorylation. In the tumor window model, inhibition of ATX abrogated radiation induced tumor neovascularization (65%; P = 0.011). In a heterotopic mouse GL261 tumors untreated mice took 11.2 days to reach a tumor volume of 7000 mm3, however combination of PF-8380 (10 mg/kg) with irradiation (five fractions of 2 Gy) took more than 32 days to reach a tumor volume of 7000 mm3.
Conclusion: Inhibition of ATX by PF-8380 led to decreased invasion and enhanced radiosensitization of GBM cells. Radiation-induced activation of Akt was abrogated by inhibition of ATX. Furthermore, inhibition of ATX led to diminished tumor vascularity and delayed tumor growth. These results suggest that inhibition of ATX may ameliorate GBM response to radiotherapy.
Frontiers in Oncology 09/2013; 3:236. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00236
"During gliomagenesis, the AKT pathway is also frequently activated (27,28) and PTEN disrupted (29–31). Consequently the inhibition of AKT by either PTEN re-expression or PI3K inhibitors impairs DNA repair and radiosensitizes glioblastoma (13,15,32,33). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor relapse after radiotherapy is a great concern in the treatment of high-grade gliomas. Inhibition of the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway is known to radiosensitize cancer cells and to delay their DNA repair after irradiation. In this study, we show that the radiosensitization of CB193 and T98G, two high-grade glioma cell lines, by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, correlates with the induction of G1 and G2/M arrest, but is inconsistently linked to a delayed DNA double-strand break (DSBs) repair. The PI3K/AKT pathway has been shown to activate radioprotective factors such as telomerase, whose inhibition may contribute to the radiosensitization of cancer cells. However, we show that radiation upregulates telomerase activity in LY-294002-treated glioma cells as well as untreated controls, demonstrating a PI3K/AKT-independent pathway of telomerase activation. Our study suggests that radiosensitizing strategies based on PI3-kinase inhibition in high-grade gliomas may be optimized by additional treatments targeting either telomerase activity or telomere maintenance.
International Journal of Oncology 05/2013; 43(2). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1970 · 3.03 Impact Factor
"Activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway is associated with radioresistance in many cancers, including those of the colon, bladder, prostate, head and neck, cervix, and brain [21,22]. Inhibition of the PI3K-Akt pathway has been shown to impair DNA repair after IR [23,24], and result in radiosensitization in a variety of different cell types including human GBMs [22,25] For example, inhibition of PI3K-Akt pathway via treatment with PI3K inhibitors or PTEN expression has been shown to increase radiosensitivity in human GBM cells [26,27]. Although most reports indicate that inhibition of Akt activation reduces radiosensitivity, a report from del la Pena et al showed little or no effect of Akt activation on the effectiveness of IR treatment in a number of human GBM cell lines . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ionizing radiation (IR) therapy is a primary treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a common and devastating brain tumor in humans. IR has been shown to induce PI3K-Akt activation in many cell types, and activation of the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway has been correlated with radioresistance.
Initially, the effects of IR on Akt activation were assessed in multiple human GBM cell lines. Next, to evaluate a potential causative role of IR-induced Akt activation on radiosensitivity, Akt activation was inhibited during IR with several complementary genetic and pharmacological approaches, and radiosensitivity measured using clonogenic survival assays.
Three of the eight cell lines tested demonstrated IR-induced Akt activation. Further studies revealed that IR-induced Akt activation was dependent upon the presence of a serum factor, and could be inhibited by the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. Inhibition of PI3K activation with LY294002, or with inducible wild-type PTEN, inhibition of EGFR, as well as direct inhibition of Akt with two Akt inhibitors during irradiation increased the radiosensitivity of U87MG cells.
These results suggest that Akt may be a central player in a feedback loop whereby activation of Akt induced by IR increases radioresistance of GBM cells. Targeting the Akt signaling pathway may have important therapeutic implications when used in combination with IR in the treatment of a subset of brain tumor patients.
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