PKB/Akt mediates radiosensitization by the signaling inhibitor LY294002 in human malignant gliomas
ABSTRACT The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) signaling pathway is frequently aberrantly activated in glioblastoma multiforme (GM) by mutation or loss of the 3' phospholipid phosphatase PTEN. PTEN abnormalities result in inappropriate signaling to downstream molecules including protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). PI3-kinase activation increases resistance to radiation-induced cell death; conversely, PI3-kinase inhibition enhances the sensitivity of tumors to radiation. The effects of LY294002, a biochemical inhibitor of PI3-kinase, on the response to radiation were examined in the PTEN mutant glioma cell line U251 MG. Low doses of LY294002 sensitized U251 MG to clinically relevant doses of radiation. In contrast to LY294002, rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR, did not result in radiosensitization. We demonstrate that among multiple known targets of LY294002, PI3-kinase is the most likely molecule responsible for LY294002-induced radiosensitization. Furthermore, using a myristoylated PKB/Akt construct, we identified PKB/Akt as the downstream molecule that mediates the synergistic cytotoxicity between LY294002 and radiation. Thus PI3-kinase dysregulation may contribute to the notable radioresistance of GM tumors and inhibition of PKB/Akt offers an excellent target to enhance radiosensitivity.
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ABSTRACT: Radiotherapy is one of the major therapies for cancer treatment. p53 acts as a central mediator of the cellular response to stressful stimuli, such as radiation. Recently it has been known that activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is associated with radioresistance. In this study, we investigated whether X-irradiation up-regulates PI3K in a p53-dependent manner in human colon cancer cells. In order to study this phenomenon, we have treated p53-wild type and p53-mutant type HCT116 cells with X-ray. Treatment of wild type HCT116 cells with 8 Gy resulted in a marked increase in PI3K (p85), which paralleled an increase in PTEN, a counterpart of PI3K. However, these effects of X-rays in the p53-mutant cells were not observed. These results suggest that the X-irradiation-induced up-regulation of PI3K/PTEN pathway is p53-dependent.01/2010; 25(3).
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ABSTRACT: Background Thalidomide is effective in the treatment of angiodysplasia. The mechanisms underlying its activity may be associated with inhibition of angiogenic factors. It was recently shown that Slit2/Robo1 signaling plays a role in angiogenesis. Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the expression and effects of Robo1 and Slit2 in angiodysplasia and to identify the possible therapeutic mechanisms of thalidomide. Method Slit2 and Robo1 expression were analyzed in tissue samples and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with thalidomide using a combination of laboratory assays that were able to detect functional activity. Results Slit2, Robo1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were strongly expressed in five angiodysplasia lesions out of seven cases, while expression was low in one out of seven normal tissues. Exposure of HUVECs to recombinant N-Slit2 resulted in an increase in VEGF levels and stimulated proliferation, migration and tube formation. These effects were blocked by an inhibitor of PI3K and thalidomide. Conclusions Robo1 and Slit2 may have important roles in the formation of gastrointestinal vascular malformation. High concentrations of Slit2 increased the levels of VEGF in HUVECs via signaling through the PI3K/Akt pathwayan effect that could be inhibited by thalidomide.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 10/2014; 59(12). DOI:10.1007/s10620-014-3257-5 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Progress in research on the molecular aspects of glioblastoma has yet to provide a medical therapy that significantly improves prognosis. Glioblastoma invariably progress through current treatment regimens with radiotherapy as a key component. Activation of several signaling pathways is thought to be associated with this resistance to radiotherapy. Ras activity is exceptionally high in glioblastoma and may regulate sensitivity to radiotherapy. Raf-1, a downstream effector of Ras, demonstrates a high amount of activity in glioblastoma. Therefore, Raf-1 inhibition should be considered as a mechanism to increase the effectiveness of radiotherapy in treatment regimen. In vitro analysis was performed with a novel Raf-1 kinase inhibitor (BAY 54-9085) in culture with the glioblastoma cell line U1242. The cell line was treated in serum-containing media and analyzed for the effect of the BAY 54-9085 alone and BAY 54-9085 combined with radiation on cell death. BAY 54-9085 displayed a cytocidal effect on glioblastoma cells following a 3day incubation with the drug in serum-containing media. A dose of 2.5μM displayed moderate cell death which significantly increased with a dose of 5.0μM. In addition, glioblastoma cells treated with both the BAY 54-9085 and gamma radiation displayed a significant increase in cell death (85.5%) as compared to either BAY 54-9085 (73.1%) or radiation (34.4%) alone. Radiation therapy is a key component of treatment for glioblastoma. A novel Raf-1 inhibitor displayed in vitro evidence of synergistically increasing cell death of glioblastoma cells in combination with radiation.Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 10/2013; 21(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2013.04.010 · 1.32 Impact Factor