Ubiquitin-proteasome degradation of KLF5 transcription factor in cancer and untransformed epithelial cells

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365-C Clifton Road, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Oncogene (Impact Factor: 8.56). 06/2005; 24(20):3319-27. DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1208497
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis plays a central role in controlling intracellular levels of essential regulatory molecules such as p53, cyclins, myc, BRCA1, HIF-1alpha, etc. The Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) transcription factor regulates biological processes involved in carcinogenesis, angiogenesis, and smooth muscle cell differentiation. In carcinogenesis, KLF5's role has been indicated by frequent genetic deletion as well as functional studies. Here we show that KLF5 is an unstable protein with a short half-life. Destruction of KLF5 was prevented by each of the proteasome-specific inhibitors tested but not by an inhibitor for trypsin-like proteases and cysteine proteases or by a lysosome inhibitor in epithelial cells. Furthermore, KLF5 underwent ubiquitination, and deletion of a 56-amino-acid sequence adjacent to a known transactivation domain of KLF5 significantly reduced its ubiquitination and degradation. Interestingly, cancer cells appeared to be more active in KLF5 degradation than untransformed epithelial cells, yet their proteasome activity was not higher. These results suggest that KLF5 protein is degraded at least in part through ubiquitination-proteasome pathway, which may have become hyperactive for KLF5 in cancer cells.

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Available from: Keith D Wilkinson, Nov 17, 2014
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    • "during cancer development [10] [11] [12]. In addition, KLF5 protein is degraded by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, and one E3 ubiquitin ligase that degrades KLF5, WWP1, is amplified and overexpressed in human prostate and breast cancers, causing excessive protein degradation and functional insufficiency of KLF5 [13] [14] [15]. These findings indicate that KLF5 is frequently inactivated during human carcinogenesis and thus could be a tumor suppressor gene, and some functional studies indeed support a tumor suppressor function of KLF5. "
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    ABSTRACT: Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) regulates multiple biologic processes. Its function in tumorigenesis appears contradictory though, showing both tumor suppressor and tumor promoting activities. In this study, we examined whether and how Klf5 functions in prostatic tumorigenesis using mice with prostate-specific deletion of Klf5 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten), both of which are frequently inactivated in human prostate cancer. Histologic analysis demonstrated that when one Pten allele was deleted, which causes mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), Klf5 deletion accelerated the emergence and progression of mPIN. When both Pten alleles were deleted, which causes prostate cancer, Klf5 deletion promoted tumor growth, increased cell proliferation, and caused more severe morphologic and molecular alterations. Homozygous deletion of Klf5 was more effective than hemizygous deletion. Unexpectedly, while Pten deletion alone expanded basal cell population in a tumor as reported, Klf5 deletion in the Pten-null background clearly reduced basal cell population while expanding luminal cell population. Global gene expression profiling, pathway analysis, and experimental validation indicate that multiple mechanisms could mediate the tumor-promoting effect of Klf5 deletion, including the up-regulation of epidermal growth factor and its downstream signaling molecules AKT and ERK and the inactivation of the p15 cell cycle inhibitor. KLF5 also appears to cooperate with several transcription factors, including CREB1, Sp1, Myc, ER and AR, to regulate gene expression. These findings validate the tumor suppressor function of KLF5. They also yield a mouse model that shares two common genetic alterations with human prostate cancer—mutation/deletion of Pten and deletion of Klf5.
    Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 11/2014; 16(11). DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2014.09.006 · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    • "The western blot and anti-KLF5 antibody have been described in our previous study (Chen et al., 2005b). The anti-FGF-BP antibody was purchased from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA; AF1593) and diluted 500 times for western blot. "
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    ABSTRACT: The Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor promoting cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression and survival. A high expression level of KLF5 mRNA has been shown to be associated with shorter breast cancer patient survival. However, the mechanism of KLF5 action in breast cancer is still not clear. In this study, we found that both KLF5 and its downstream gene fibroblast growth factor binding protein 1 (FGF-BP) are co-expressed in breast cell lines and primary tumors. Manipulation of the KLF5 expression can positively regulate the FGF-BP mRNA and protein levels in multiple breast cell lines. In addition, the secreted FGF-BP protein in the conditional medium is also regulated by KLF5. Furthermore, we demonstrated that KLF5 binds and activates the FGF-BP promoter through a GC box by luciferase reporter, oligo pull down and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. When FGF-BP is depleted by siRNA, KLF5 fails to promote cell proliferation in MCF10A, SW527 and TSU-Pr1. We further demonstrated that overexpression or addition of FGF-BP rescues the KLF5-knockdown-induced growth arrest in MCF10A cells. Finally, KLF5 significantly promotes MCF7 breast cancer cell xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. These findings suggest that KLF5 may promote breast cancer cell proliferation at least partially through directly activating the FGF-BP mRNA transcription. Understanding the mechanism of KLF5 action in breast cancer may result in useful diagnostic and therapeutic targets.
    Oncogene 09/2009; 28(42):3702-13. DOI:10.1038/onc.2009.235 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Western blot analysis was performed as described in our previous study (Chen et al., 2005b). Antibodies for Smad2 and Smad3 were purchased from Zymed Laboratories, and antibodies for Smad4, TbRI and p15 were purchased from Cell Signaling. "
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    ABSTRACT: The gene for E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 is located at 8q21, a region frequently amplified in human cancers, including prostate cancer. Recent studies have shown that WWP1 negatively regulates the TGFbeta tumor suppressor pathway by inactivating its molecular components, including Smad2, Smad4 and TbetaR1. These findings suggest an oncogenic role of WWP1 in carcinogenesis, but direct supporting evidence has been lacking. In this study, we examined WWP1 for gene dosage, mRNA expression, mutation and functions in a number of human prostate cancer samples. We found that the WWP1 gene had copy number gain in 15 of 34 (44%) xenografts and cell lines from prostate cancer and 15 of 49 (31%) clinical prostate cancer samples. Consistently, WWP1 was overexpressed in 60% of xenografts and cell lines from prostate cancer. Mutation of WWP1 occurred infrequently in prostate cancer. Functionally, WWP1 overexpression promoted colony formation in the 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell line. In PC-3 prostate cancer cells, WWP1 knockdown significantly suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced TGFbeta-mediated growth inhibition. These findings suggest that WWP1 is an oncogene that undergoes genomic amplification at 8q21 in human prostate cancer, and WWP1 overexpression is a common mechanism involved in the inactivation of TGFbeta function in human cancer.
    Oncogene 05/2007; 26(16):2386-94. DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1210021 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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