Effects of feeding vitamin A and lactoferrin on epithelium of lymphoid tissues of intestine of neonatal calves.
ABSTRACT Circulating levels of vitamin A (retinol) and lactoferrin (Lf) are low in calves at birth. Bovine colostrum contains relatively high amounts of vitamin A and Lf, and both substances are intestinally absorbed by neonatal calves. There is evidence that these compounds interact with insulin-like growth factor binding proteins and thus influence the status and effects of insulin-like growth factor. The hypothesis was therefore tested that vitamin A and Lf influence epithelial growth, development, and absorptive capacity of the small and large intestine and modulate intestinal immune tissues (Peyer's patches; PP). Four groups of calves (n = 7 per group) were fed a milk-based formula with or without vitamin A and (or) Lf. Group F received formula (F) only; group F(A) was fed F supplemented with vitamin A; group F(L) was fed F supplemented with Lf, and group F(AL) received F plus vitamin A plus Lf. An additional group of calves (group C; n = 7) served as positive control and was fed colostrum (C) from pooled milk obtained on d 1, 2, and 3 of lactation. Amounts of nutritive components in formula and colostrum were similar. Blood samples were taken to measure vitamin A and Lf, and plasma xylose (added on d 4 to feeds) was measured postprandially for 8 h as a marker of intestinal absorptive capacity. Plasma vitamin A was low at birth and further decreased in groups F and F(L), but increased in groups F(A), F(AL), and C. Plasma Lf was low at birth and transiently increased up to 4 h after the first meal in group C. Xylose absorption was higher in group C than in other groups. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into DNA (as a measure of cell proliferation rate) was enhanced in intestinal crypts in groups F and F(L) at all intestinal sites. Ileum villus heights of groups F and F(L) were smaller than of groups F(A) and F(AL). Villus height to crypt depth ratios were smaller in F-fed groups (especially in groups F and F(L)) than in C-fed calves in the duodenum and jejunum. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine into colon crypt cells of group F was greater than in groups F(L) and F(A). Sizes of follicles of PP in the ileum were greater in group F(A) than in group F. In the ileum, vitamin A and Lf tended to interact with PP size. In conclusion, feed supplementation of vitamin A and Lf influenced growth of the ileum and colon. Interactions were observed between vitamin A and Lf on epithelial cell maturation, villus growth, and size of follicles in PP of neonatal calves.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Treatment with transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) has been shown to be effective in accelerating skin wound healing. Another approach to gain the beneficial effects of TGF-beta(1) on wound healing could be the activation of tissue stores of latent TGF-beta(1) with agents such as vitamin A. The aims of this study were to determine whether 1) vitamin A is effective in enhancing intestinal wound healing in vitro and 2) activation of TGF-beta(1) is increased during wound healing with vitamin A treatment. We used the intraluminal chemical induction model of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), which was adapted to the 1-wk-old piglet. Injured (NEC) and noninjured full-thickness ileum explants harvested from the piglets were cultured for 24 and 48 h in serum-free medium supplemented with all-trans retinol (ATR; 0, 2, 5, and 10 microM). All concentrations of ATR improved recovery of normal ileal wall cytoarchitecture of NEC explants, with maximal recovery observed with 2 microM ATR after 24 h of culture. Further recovery after 48 h was observed with 5 and 10 microM ATR but did not achieve the degree of healing observed with 2 microM ATR. There were no observable adverse effects of ATR on noninjured ileal explant morphology. Active TGF-beta(1) was identified only in the NEC explants incubated with ATR. The results of this study demonstrate that administration of vitamin A accelerates recovery of normal intestinal wall cytoarchitecture of injured ileum in vitro, without adversely affecting noninjured ileum. The increased activation of latent TGF-beta(1) may, in part, be responsible for the accelerated healing of injured ileum observed with vitamin A administration.Pediatric Research 07/2004; 55(6):935-9. · 2.67 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Lactoferrin is an iron-binding protein found in external secretions such as , the cow and human,and at very high levels in postweaning,mammary,secretions from,the cow, sheep, guinea pig, mouse, and human. It is also elevated in mastitic mammary,glands. Data accumu- lated over the past three decades suggest that the pro- tein may,play an important,role in defending,the mammary gland against infection, particularly during
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The identification of hormones and regulatory factors in colostrum and milk has led to intensive investigations on their roles in the development and maintenance of the mammary and neonatal tissues. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in transgenic mice influence mammary biology gland towards the end of lactation. In the bovine, IGFBP-3 is the major IGFBP in mammary secretions. In addition to binding IGFs, IGFBP-3 also binds to lactoferrin (Lf). Secreted IGFBP-3 re-enters mammary epithelial cells and with the presence of a nuclear localization sequence, IGFBP-3 and Lf enter the nucleus. Nuclear IGFBP-3 affects apoptotic signaling through the retinoic-x-receptors, while Lf affects apoptotic events through unknown mechanisms. Such interactions likely influence mammary development and involution. Furthermore, ingested colostral bioactive factors can exert regulatory functions in neonates. Intestinal receptors for IGFs and insulin are modified by age and/or diet. Feeding IGF-I had no effect, but colostrum extracts had small intestinal effects (stimulation of proliferation and villus size), suggesting that several factors, rather than one single bioactive factor were responsible. Systemic changes of metabolic and endocrine profiles in neonates depend on composition, amounts, time and duration of feeding colostrum. Early postnatal colostrum intake is not only important for the provision and absorption of immunoglobulins. Thus, in neonatal calves the lack of colostrum intake during the first 24h after birth results in a low immunoglobulin G, beta-carotene and Vitamin A status that persists for weeks and plasma patterns of fatty acids, essential amino acids and the glutamine/glutamate ratios are affected. In calves oral administration of IGF-I had no and feeding of colostrum whey extracts had only minor effects on metabolic and endocrine traits. Thus, mammary secretions influence regulatory functions of mammary and neonatal tissues.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 08/2002; 23(1-2):101-10. · 2.38 Impact Factor