Article

Sleep and depression in children and adolescents

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Sleep Medicine Reviews (Impact Factor: 9.14). 05/2005; 9(2):115-29. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2004.09.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT There is considerable research evidence suggesting that sleep is biologically linked to mood disorders in adults. However, polysomographic and neuroendocrine studies in children and adolescents have not found consistent changes in sleep architecture paralleling adult major depression. This review provides a detailed description of sleep research that has been conducted in early-onset affective disorders, uncovers the potential limitations of the available data, and formulates future research directions in this important subject.

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    • "The decision to purchase the equipment may be particularly difficult for clinicians who consider sleep assessment to be a relevant, but not necessarily central, aspect of their practice. For example, sleep problems are known to be comorbid with a variety of chronic pediatric medical (e.g., chronic pain, asthma; Lewin & Dahl, 1999; Sadeh, Horowitz, Wolach- Benodis, & Wolach, 1998) and mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression ; Alfano, Ginsburg, & Kingery, 2007; Cortese, Faraone, Konofal, & Lecendreux, 2009; Ivanenko, Crabtree & Gozal, 2005), and comprehensive assessments of these conditions would often benefit from some assessment of sleep as an issue that could be exacerbating the primary condition. In these situations, objective sleep assessment may not be a viable option, and other methods for collecting relevant information about child sleep are needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: To develop and evaluate adjustment factors to convert parent-reported time in bed to an estimate of child sleep time consistent with objective measurement. A community sample of 217 children aged 4-9 years (mean age = 6.6 years) wore actigraph wristwatches to objectively measure sleep for 7 days while parents completed reports of child sleep each night. After examining the moderators of the discrepancy between parent reports and actigraphy, 3 adjustment factors were evaluated. Parent report of child sleep overestimated nightly sleep duration by ∼24 min per night relative to actigraphy. Child age, gender, and sleep quality all had small or nonsignificant associations with correspondence between parent report and actigraph. Empirically derived adjustment factors significantly reduced the discrepancy between parent report and objective measurement. Simple adjustment factors can enhance the correspondence and utility of parent reports of child sleep duration for clinical and research purposes.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 04/2014; DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsu020 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    • "The decision to purchase the equipment may be particularly difficult for clinicians who consider sleep assessment to be a relevant, but not necessarily central, aspect of their practice. For example, sleep problems are known to be comorbid with a variety of chronic pediatric medical (e.g., chronic pain, asthma; Lewin & Dahl, 1999; Sadeh, Horowitz, Wolach- Benodis, & Wolach, 1998) and mental health problems (e.g., anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression ; Alfano, Ginsburg, & Kingery, 2007; Cortese, Faraone, Konofal, & Lecendreux, 2009; Ivanenko, Crabtree & Gozal, 2005), and comprehensive assessments of these conditions would often benefit from some assessment of sleep as an issue that could be exacerbating the primary condition. In these situations, objective sleep assessment may not be a viable option, and other methods for collecting relevant information about child sleep are needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To develop and evaluate adjustment factors to convert parent-reported time in bed to an estimate of child sleep time consistent with objective measurement. Methods A community sample of 217 chil-dren aged 4–9 years (mean age ¼ 6.6 years) wore actigraph wristwatches to objectively measure sleep for 7 days while parents completed reports of child sleep each night. After examining the moderators of the dis-crepancy between parent reports and actigraphy, 3 adjustment factors were evaluated. Results Parent report of child sleep overestimated nightly sleep duration by $24 min per night relative to actigraphy. Child age, gender, and sleep quality all had small or nonsignificant associations with correspondence between parent report and actigraph. Empirically derived adjustment factors significantly reduced the discrepancy be-tween parent report and objective measurement. Conclusions Simple adjustment factors can enhance the correspondence and utility of parent reports of child sleep duration for clinical and research purposes.
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    • "Sleep disturbance, usually characterised as ‘insomnia’, is a common occurrence in depression in both primary [1] and secondary [2] care settings, as well as a key feature of the diagnosis. In clinical studies of depressed patients, sleep problems are often the most persistent and/or residual symptoms hampering individuals from remission or recovery [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02.00 - 06.00 and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n = 56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x: 5.8 hrs vs. x: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Delayed sleep was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population.
    BMC Psychiatry 02/2014; 14(1):33. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-14-33 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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