A Phase I trial of prolonged administration of lovastatin in patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or of the cervix
ABSTRACT Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) and of the cervix (CC) are particularly sensitive to the apoptotic effects of lovastatin in vitro. In this Phase I study, the safety and maximum related dose (MTD) of lovastatin was evaluated in these specific clinical settings. This was a Phase I open-label study to determine the recommended Phase II dose (RPTD) of lovastatin in advanced HNSCC or CC. This study involved a dose and duration escalation of lovastatin starting at 5/mg/kg/day x 2 weeks, every 21 days, until the MTD was reached. Plasma samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis. All 26 patients enrolled were evaluable. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) consisting of reversible muscle toxicity was seen at 10 mg/kg/day x 14 days. Toxicity may be related to relative renal insufficiency. The MTD was determined to be 7.5 mg/kg/day x 21 days, every 28 days. The low lipid levels experienced on study did not translate into adverse events. Biologically relevant plasma lovastatin levels were obtained. No objective responses were seen but the median survival of patients on study was 7.5 months (mean 9.2 +/- 1.5 months). Stable disease (SD) for more than 3 months was seen in 23% of patients. One patient achieved SD and clinical benefit for 14 months on study and a further 23 months off treatment. The disease stabilisation rate of 23% seen in these end-stage patients is encouraging. We conclude that the administration of lovastatin at 7.5 mg/kg/day for 21 consecutive days on a 28-day schedule is well tolerated in patients with good renal function and warrants further clinical evaluation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Statins are commonly used against arteriosclerotic disease, but recent retrospective analyses have suggested that statins also prevent cancer. The aim of this systematic review is to verify the vitro anti-tumor effects of statins on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Studies were gathered by searching Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and PubMed, up until May 9, 2015, with no time or language restrictions. Only in vitro studies that discuss the effect of statins on head and neck carcinoma were selected. Of 153 identified papers, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies demonstrated that statins had a significant effect on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and influenced cell viability, cell cycle, cell death, and protein expression levels involved in pathways of carcinogenesis, which corroborates with the potential in vitro anti-tumor effects. It provides highlights about the biological mechanisms of statins used alone or associated with traditional therapy for cancer. Though there are few studies on the topic, currently available evidence suggests that statins shows that preclinical experiments supports the potentiality of statin as an adjuvant agent in chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy approaches routinely used in the management of HNSCC and should undergo further clinical assessment.PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0130476. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0130476 · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Administration of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, or statins, to ambulatory patients is associated with a lower incidence of long-term adverse cardiovascular events, including death, myocardial infarction, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and renal dysfunction. However, increasing clinical evidence suggests that statins, independent of their effects on serum cholesterol levels, may also play a potential role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Specifically, statins have been shown to exert several beneficial antineoplastic properties, including decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The feasibility and efficacy of statins for the prevention and treatment of cancer is reviewed.The Oncologist 04/2006; 11(3):306-15. DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.11-3-306 · 4.54 Impact Factor