Rechallenge of Late-Onset Neutropenia With Clozapine

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 3.24). 05/2005; 25(2):185-6. DOI: 10.1097/
Source: PubMed
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    • "y (Small, et. al., 2005). In the patients in whom clozapine rechallenge was attempted, the psychotic symptoms returned despite treatment with other antipsychotics once the clozapine treatment was discontinued (Mathewson and Lindenmayer, 2007; Crews et. al 2010; DasGupta and Young, 1991; Bray, 2008; Silvestrini, et. al. 2000; Ghaznavi et. al. 2008; Small, et. al., 2005; Grohmann, et. al., 1989; Bray and Reid, 2011; Jayathilake and Singh, 2009; Reid et. al. 2001; Huang, 2000; Anderson and Powers, 1991; Goates and Escobar, 1992)."
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    ABSTRACT: Clozapine is widely prescribed for treatment refractory patients with schizophrenia, but its use is limited by potentially life threatening adverse effects. Rechallenge after these complications has been occasionally attempted in patients with severe psychotic symptoms. To review the outcome of clozapine rechallenge after potentially life threatening adverse effects. Electronic, all-language, literature search (1972-2011) followed by demographic and clinical data extraction. The outcome of rechallenge was considered favorable when the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the proportion of patients who could continue clozapine was >50%. Altogether, 138 patients (mean age: 36.3years, 65.7% male, 57.6% Caucasian, virtually all with schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis) underwent clozapine rechallenge after developing neutropenia (n=112), agranulocytosis (n=15), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) (n=5), myocarditis (n=4), pericarditis (n=1) and lupus erythematosus (n=1). Rechallenge strategies were heterogeneous and not systematically evaluated. Clozapine rechallenge was successful in 78/112 patients (69.6%, CI: 60.6-77.4) after neutropenia, 3/15 (20%, CI: 7.1-45.2) after agranulocytosis, 5/5 (100%, CI: 56-100) after NMS, 3/4 (75%, CI: 30-95) after myocarditis, 1/1 after pericarditis, and 0/1 after clozapine-induced lupus. Successfully rechallenged patients were followed for 16-96weeks. None of the rechallenged patients died. Although controlled studies are clearly needed, using a priori, confidence interval-based criteria, case reports/series suggest that in refractory patients who benefited from clozapine, careful rechallenge can be considered after neutropenia and NMS, but not after agranulocytosis and myocarditis.
    Schizophrenia Research 11/2011; 134(2-3):180-6. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2011.10.014 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: MEDICATION SAFETY Overlooked Renal Dosage Adjustments A retrospective analysis of 647 patients at hospital discharge com-pared required renal dosage adjust-ments to dosage actually prescribed. This study was conducted at VieCuri Medical Centre in Venlo, Netherlands. Patient demographics and renal function data were col-lected, and dosage adjustment needs were assessed via the pharmacy-supported discharge counseling ser-vice. The incidence of inappropriate dosing based on renal function was measured at hospital discharge. Thirty-seven percent of patients evaluated during the study period (237/647) had a creatinine clear-ance less than 51 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ; dosage adjustment was warranted in 23.9% (411/1,718) of prescrip-tions. When dosage adjustment should have been performed, more than 40% of prescriptions (169/411; 41.1%) were inappropri-ate for renal function (9.8% of pre-scriptions overall; 169/1,718). Fur-thermore, 60.4% (102/169) of inappropriate prescriptions pos-sessed the potential for moderate or severe clinical consequences, as evaluated by a panel of two clinical pharmacologists and one nephrolo-gist. Study authors also noted a lack of standardized dosing guidelines for agents requiring renal dosage adjustment. The authors also sug-gested that augmenting medication systems by adding dynamic renal dosing alerts would improve moni-toring. Summary: A comparison of suggested renal dosing and actual dosing at hospital discharge revealed that appropriate prescribing may be overlooked. van Dijk EA, Drabbe NRG, Kruijtbosch M, De Smet PAGM. Drug dosage adjust-ments according to renal function at hos-pital discharge. Ann Pharmacother. 2006;40:1254-1260.
    Hospital pharmacy 12/1122; 41(7). DOI:10.1310/hpj4311-937
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    ABSTRACT: Awareness of childhood-onset schizophrenia is rapidly increasing, with a more precise definition now available of the clinical picture and early signs, the outcome and the treatment strategies. Premorbid developmental impairments, including language, motor and social deficits, are more frequent and more pronounced in earlier- than in later-onset forms of schizophrenia. This 'pan-dysmaturation' is reported from the first months of life in more than half of the children who will develop childhood-onset schizophrenia, and it suggests a more severe and early disruption of brain development compared with the adolescent- and adult-onset disorder. The insidious onset in at least 75% of children, the high rates of premorbid problems and the hesitancy on the part of clinicians to make a diagnosis of schizophrenia in a child usually delay the recognition of the syndrome. Elementary auditory hallucinations are the most frequent positive symptom, while visual and tactile hallucinations are rarer. Delusions are less complex than in adolescents and are usually related to childhood themes. Negative symptoms are largely predominant, namely flat or inappropriate affect. A marked deterioration from the previous level of functioning is present in all these children, and an impaired outcome is reported in approximately 50-60% of them. The main diagnostic challenges are with differentiating childhood-onset schizophrenia from affective disorders (both depression and bipolar disorder) with psychotic symptoms, pervasive developmental disorders and severe personality disorders. Post-traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder without insight may also be misdiagnosed as schizophrenia. Furthermore, approximately 10% of children from the community report nonpsychotic hallucinations or delusions. Finally, children with atypical psychotic features that do not strictly fit diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia have been described, and new labels have been proposed to categorise these clinical patterns, such as multidimensionally impaired disorder and multiple complex developmental disorder. In the context of a multimodal approach, including behavioral, social, scholastic and familial interventions, a pharmacological treatment is usually the core treatment. Available experience from the few controlled studies, open studies and case reports on pharmacotherapy in children with schizophrenia aged <12 years is critically analysed in this review, with particular reference to the use of atypical antipsychotics in clinical practice. To date, the major evidence supports the efficacy of risperidone and olanzapine, while clozapine seems an effective option in treatment-refractory cases. Published experience with newer atypical antipsychotics (quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole) is still lacking in this age range. Safety data (namely extrapyramidal symptoms, weight gain, hyperprolactinaemia, haematological adverse effects, seizures, hepatotoxicity, metabolic effects, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and cardiovascular effects) are reviewed and discussed, along with strategies for management.
    CNS Drugs 02/2006; 20(10):841-66. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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