Buzdar AU, Ibrahim NK, Francis D, Booser DJ, Thomas ES, Theriault RL, Pusztai L, Green MC, Arun BK, Giordano SH, Cristofanilli M, Frye DK, Smith TL, Hunt KK, Singletary SE, Sahin AA, Ewer MS, Buchholz TA, Berry D, Hortobagyi GNSignificantly higher pathologic complete remission rate after neoadjuvant therapy with trastuzumab, paclitaxel, and epirubicin chemotherapy: results of a randomized trial in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive operable breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 23: 3676-3685
The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting could increase pathologic complete response (pCR) rate in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive disease.
Forty-two patients with HER2-positive disease with operable breast cancer were randomly assigned to either four cycles of paclitaxel followed by four cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide or to the same chemotherapy with simultaneous weekly trastuzumab for 24 weeks. The primary objective was to demonstrate a 20% improvement in pCR (assumed 21% to 41%) with the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy. The planned sample size was 164 patients.
Prognostic factors were similar in the two groups. After 34 patients had completed therapy, the trial's Data Monitoring Committee stopped the trial because of superiority of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy. pCR rates were 25% and 66.7% for chemotherapy (n = 16) and trastuzumab plus chemotherapy (n = 18), respectively (P = .02). The decision was based on the calculation that, if study continued to 164 patients, there was a 95% probability that trastuzumab plus chemotherapy would be superior. Of the 42 randomized patients, 26% in the chemotherapy arm achieved pCR compared with 65.2% in the trastuzumab plus chemotherapy arm (P = .016). The safety of this approach is not established, although no clinical congestive heart failure was observed. A more than 10% decrease in the cardiac ejection fraction was observed in five and seven patients in the chemotherapy and trastuzumab plus chemotherapy arms, respectively.
Despite the small sample size, these data indicate that adding trastuzumab to chemotherapy, as used in this trial, significantly increased pCR without clinical congestive heart failure.
"Trastuzumab is the first approved anti-HER2 agent used both in MBC as well as in early breast cancer, if HER2 positive. In a study by Pachmann et al., the benefit from 1 year of trastuzumab therapy in MBC lasted on average only for first 3 years. CTC monitoring during trastuzumab treatment might point out patients who will do well. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating tumor cell (CTC) measurement in peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer offers prognostic information. In this review, we will try to identify evidence that could be used for prognosis, predictive power to draw this tool to clinical utility. We reviewed 81 manuscripts, and categorized those in discovery datasets, prognostic factors in metastatic breast cancer, identification of clinical utility in early breast cancer and in novel approaches. With each patient responding differently to chemotherapy, more efficient markers would improve clinical outcome. Current CTC diagnostic techniques use epithelial markers predominantly; however, the most appropriate method is the measurement of circulating DNA. It has been hypothesized that micrometastasis occurs early in the development of tumors. That implies the presence of CTCs in nonmetastatic setting. The origin of stimulus for malignant transformation is yet unknown. The role of microenvironment as a stimulus is also being investigated. It has been shown that CTCs vary in numbers with chemotherapy. The markers, which are followed-up in the primary tumors, are also being studied on the CTCs. There is discordance of the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status between the primary tumor and CTCs. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the CTCs. With genetic profiling and molecular characterization of CTCs, it is possible to overcome the diagnostic difficulties. Evidence for clinical utility of CTC as prognostic and predictive marker is increasing. Appropriate patient stratification according to CTC determination among other tests, would make personalized cancer therapy more feasible.
Journal of Carcinogenesis 06/2014; 13(1):8. DOI:10.4103/1477-3163.135578
"The addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy in the pre-surgical setting in HER2+ patients has been tested in several phase II studies
[10-14], with pathological complete response (pathCR) rates ranging from 18% to 47%. A phase II-III randomized pre-surgical trial conducted by the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center shows significant improvement in the pathCR rate with the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy
. The NOAH (NeO-Adjuvant Herceptin) trial is a phase III trial that evaluated the addition of trastuzumab to anthracycline- and taxane -based chemotherapy for HER2-positive patients with locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Preoperative therapy with chemotherapy and the HER2-targeted monoclonal antibody trastuzumab is valuable for patients with large or locally advanced HER2-positive (HER2+) breast cancers but traditional methods of measuring HER2 expression do not accurately stratify patients for likelihood of response. Quantitative immunofluorescent approaches have the potential to provide a mathematically continuous measure of HER2. Here we seek to determine whether quantitative measurement of HER2 or phospho-HER2 correlates with likelihood of response to trastuzumab- containing neoadjuvant therapy.
We evaluated core biopsy samples from 27 HER2+ breast cancer patients enrolled in a preoperative clinical trial using trastuzumab, nab-paclitaxel and carboplatin combination therapy (BrUOG BR-211B (NCT00617942)). Tumor core biopsies were taken before initiation of treatment and 9–13 days after patients received "run-in" doses of either single agent trastuzumab or nab-paclitaxel. The AQUA method of quantitative immunofluorescence was used for analysis of in situ protein expression. Patients then received 18 weeks of treatment, followed by surgery to assess pathologic response to the neoadjuvant regimen.
A HER2 score of 2111 by AQUA analysis has been shown to be equivalent to HER2 3+ by immunohistochemical staining in previous studies. Of 20 evaluable patients, 10 cases who achieved a pathologic complete response (pathCR) with neoadjuvant treatment had a mean HER2 level of 10251 compared with 4766 in the patients without pathCR (p = 0.0021). Measurement of phospho-HER2 showed no difference in pathCR vs non-pathCR groups. In 9 patients who had HER2 levels repeated after a single treatment with trastuzumab there was no evidence of a reduction in the HER2 or phospho-HER2 levels following that exposure.
High levels of HER2 are associated with achievement of a pathCR in the preoperative setting, while levels of Phospho-HER2 were not predictive of response. This data suggests that accurate measurement of HER2 may help determine the likelihood of response in the pre-surgical setting. Further validation in larger cohorts is required, but this pilot data shows the feasibility of this approach.
BMC Cancer 05/2014; 14(1):326. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-326 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"These markers are useful after diagnosis and most often are detected in tissue samples obtained by biopsy or surgery. Examples of predictive markers are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and k-RAS mutations in non-small cell lung cancer that guide the use of EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors  or HER2 overexpression or amplification that indicates the treatment with anti-HER2 antibodies  or adjuvant anthracyclines . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biomarkers are important for early detection of cancer, prognosis, response prediction, and detection of residual or relapsing disease. Special attention has been given to diagnostic markers for prostate cancer since it is thought that early detection and surgery might reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. The use of prostate-specific antigen, PSA (KLK3), has been debated on the base of cohort studies that show that its use in preventive screenings only marginally influences mortality from prostate cancer. Many groups have identified alternative or additional markers, among which PCA3, in order to detect early prostate cancer through screening, to distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancers, and to guide the treatment decision. The large number of markers proposed has led us to the present study in which we analyze these indicators for their diagnostic and prognostic potential using publicly available genomic data. We identified 380 markers from literature analysis on 20,000 articles on prostate cancer markers. The most interesting ones appeared to be claudin 3 (CLDN3) and alpha-methysacyl-CoA racemase highly expressed in prostate cancer and filamin C (FLNC) and keratin 5 with highest expression in normal prostate tissue. None of the markers proposed can compete with PSA for tissue specificity. The indicators proposed generally show a great variability of expression in normal and tumor tissue or are expressed at similar levels in other tissues. Those proposed as prognostic markers distinguish cases with marginally different risk of progression and appear to have a clinically limited use. We used data sets sampling 152 prostate tissues, data sets with 281 prostate cancers analyzed by microarray analysis and a study of integrated genomics on 218 cases to develop a multigene score. A multivariate model that combines several indicators increases the discrimination power but does not add impressively to the information obtained from Gleason scoring. This analysis of 10 years of marker research suggests that diagnostic and prognostic testing is more difficult in prostate cancer than in other neoplasms and that we must continue to search for better candidates.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10555-013-9470-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
CANCER AND METASTASIS REVIEW 01/2014; 33(2-3). DOI:10.1007/s10555-013-9470-4 · 7.23 Impact Factor
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