Personality and comorbidity of common psychiatric disorders. Br J Psychiatry

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 04/2005; 186(3):190-6. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.186.3.190
Source: PubMed


We know little about the degree to which comorbidity, socommonly seen among psychiatric disorders, arises from variation in normal personality.
To study the degree to which variation in normal personality accounts for the comorbidity of eight common psychiatric and substance use disorders.
Internalising disorders (major depression, generalised anxiety and panic disorders, phobias), externalising disorders (alcohol and drug dependence, antisocial personality and conduct disorders) and personality dimensions of neuroticism, extraversion and novelty seeking were assessed in 7588 participants from a population-based twin registry. The proportion of comorbidity explained by each personality dimension was calculated using structural equation modelling.
Neuroticism accounted for the highest proportion of comorbidity within internalising disorders (20-45%) and between internalising and externalising disorders (19-88%). Variation in neuroticism and novelty seeking each accounted for a modest proportion (10-12% and 7-14%, respectively) of the comorbidity within externalising disorders. Extraversion contributed negligibly.
High neuroticism appears to be a broad vulnerability factor for comorbid psychiatric disorders. Novelty seeking is modestly important for comorbid externalising disorders.

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    • "Although the latter is not an aim of screening, an examination of such specific disorders may elicit information pertaining to the extent by which individual disorders are associated with MASQ dimensions (Bredemeier et al., 2010; Hughes et al., 2006; Tully and Penninx, 2012). Indeed, this advantage is offset by evidence that certain depression and anxiety disorders, and symptoms, tend to cluster together beyond simple depression and anxiety taxonomic boundaries (Kendler et al., 2003; Khan et al., 2005; Krueger, 1999; Watson, 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) of anhedonic depression and anxious arousal to detect the distress- (major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder) and fear-disorder clusters (i.e. panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia) have not been reported in a large sample. Methods A sample of 2981 persons underwent structured psychiatric interview; n=652 were without lifetime depression and anxiety disorder history. Participants also completed a neuroticism scale (Revised NEO Five Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]), and the 30-item short adaptation of the Mood and Anxiety Symptoms Questionnaire (MASQ-D30) measuring anhedonic depression, anxious arousal and general distress. Maximal sensitivity and specificity was determined by the Youden Index and the area-under-the-curve (AUC) in ROC analysis. Results A total of 2624 completed all measures (age M=42.4 years±13.1, 1760 females [67.1%]), including 1060 (40.4%) persons who met criteria for a distress-disorder, and 973 (37.1%) who met criteria for a fear-disorder. The general distress dimension provided the highest ROC values in the detection of the distress-disorders (AUC=.814, sensitivity=71.95%, specificity=76.34%, positive predictive value=67.33, negative predictive value=80.07). None of the measures provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders with specificity values <75%. Limitations Over sampling of depression and anxiety disorders may lead to inflated positive- and negative predictive values. Conclusions The MASQ-D30 general distress dimension showed clinically suitable operating characteristics in the detection of distress-disorders. Neither neuroticism nor the MASQ-D30 dimensions provided suitable operating characteristics in the detection of the fear-disorders.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2015; 174:611–618. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.12.045 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Higher Neuroticism and to a lesser extend lower Extraversion have been linked to both OCD (Samuels et al., 2000; Sexton et al., 2003; Tackett et al., 2008; Rosellini and Brown, 2011) and schizophrenia (van Os and Jones, 2001; Lönnqvist et al., 2009). Due to the strong relation between Neuroticism/Extraversion and psychopathology across mental disorders (Kotov et al., 2010; Andersen and Bienvenu, 2011), several authors proposed that common comorbidities may partly be explained by these personality traits (Bienvenu et al., 2001; Khan et al., 2005; Klein Hofmeijer-Sevink et al., 2013). To the best of our knowledge, so far no study directly investigated associations between FFM personality traits and comorbid OCS in patients with psychotic disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: High rates of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in schizophrenia require pathogenic explanations. Personality traits may represent risk and resiliency factors for the development of mental disorders and their comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality traits and the liability for OCS in patients with psychotic disorders and in their un-affected siblings. FFM traits, occurrence and severity of OCS and (subclinical) psychotic symptoms were assessed in 208 patients and in 281 siblings. Differences in FFM traits between participants with vs. without comorbid OCS were examined and the predictive value of FFM traits on group categorization was evaluated. Associations between FFM traits and OCS severity were investigated. Patients and siblings with OCS showed significantly higher Neuroticism compared to their counterparts without OCS. Neuroticism was positively associated with higher OCS severity and significantly predicted group assignment in both patients and in siblings. Patients with comorbid OCS presented with lower scores on Extraversion and Conscientiousness. Higher Neuroticism, and to a lesser degree lower Extraversion and Conscientiousness might add to the vulnerability of patients with a psychotic disorder to also develop OCS. Future prospective studies are needed to elucidate proposed personality-psychopathology interrelations and possible mediating factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research 02/2015; 225(3):464-470. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.066 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "high alcohol intake) that may involve self-medication to relieve negative emotions [87,88]. In one study Neuroticism explained between 19% and 88% of covariance among anxiety, depression, and alcohol and substance dependence disorders [89]. Neuroticism has also been associated with health problems such as cardiovascular disease [90], irritable bowel syndrome [91], eating disorders [92], and hypochondriac tendencies [93]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables - none of which were used in the LCA - were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age.
    BMC Geriatrics 04/2014; 14(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1471-2318-14-53 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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