Structure−Function Analysis of the Vanillin Molecule and Its Antifungal Properties
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to evaluate which structural elements of the vanillin molecule are responsible for its observed antifungal activity. MICs of vanillin, its six direct structural analogues, and several other related compounds were determined in yeast extract peptone dextrose broth against a total of 18 different food spoilage molds and yeasts. Using total mean MICs after 4 days of incubation at 25 degrees C, the antifungal activity order was 3-anisaldehyde (1.97 mM) > benzaldehyde (3.30 mM) > vanillin (5.71 mM) > anisole (6.59 mM) > 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (9.09 mM) > phenol (10.59 mM) > guaiacol (11.66 mM). No correlation was observed between the relative antifungal activity of the test compounds and log P(o/w). Furthermore, phenol (10.6 mM) was found to exhibit a greater activity than cyclohexanol (25.3 mM), whereas cyclohexanecarboxaldehyde (2.13 mM) was more active than benzaldehyde (3.30 mM). Finally, the antifungal order of isomers of hydroxybenzaldehyde and anisaldehyde was found to be 2- > 3- > 4- and 3- > 2- > 4-, respectively. In conclusion, the aldehyde moeity of vanillin plays a key role in its antifungal activity, but side-group position on the benzene ring also influences this activity. Understanding how the structure of natural compounds relates to their antimicrobial function is fundamentally important and may help facilitate their application as novel food preservatives.
- SourceAvailable from: Bettadaiah Kempaiah
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- "The presence of the polarized carbon-oxygen double bond of aldehyde/keto groups, which probably accounts for their activity forming covalent bonds with DNA and proteins and interfere with their metabolism (Feron et al. 1991). Our results are similar to the studies reported on vanillin (Fitzgerald et al. 2005). DZ have also shown significant antifungal activity (EC 50 86.49 "
ABSTRACT: Dehydrozingerone, structural half analogue of curcumin, is a phenolic compound isolated from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizomes. Dehydrozingerone and several of its derivatives such as glucopyranosides and its tetra acetate derivative and 4-O-acetyl and methyl derivatives of dehydrozingerone were synthesized in the present study. Dehydrozingerone, synthesised with improved yield was used for the synthesis of Dehydrozingerone 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (first time report) by modified Koenigs-Knorr-Zemplén method. Structures of all the compounds have been established using spectroscopic methods. These compounds were tested for radical scavenging activity by DPPH and FRAP method as well as for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The parent molecule exhibited better scavenging activity as compared to its derivatives indicating the significance of free phenolic hydroxyl group. Also, Dehydrozingerone and its derivatives exhibited antibacterial as well as antifungal activity due to the conjugation system present, which includes α,β-unsaturated carbonyl (C = O) group. This study gave an insight into structural requirements for dehydrozingerone activity.Journal of Food Science and Technology -Mysore- 02/2014; 51(2):245-55. DOI:10.1007/s13197-011-0488-8 · 2.02 Impact Factor
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- "Not much is known about vanillin's mechanism of antifungal activity, but it has been suggested that the aldehyde moiety of vanillin plays an important role in its antifungal activity. The rationale for this is that S. cerevisiae convert vanillin into vanillic acid and vanillyl alcohol, which possess no antimicrobial activity, confirming the key-role of the aldehyde moiety (Feron et al., 1991; Fitzgerald et al., 2005). "
ABSTRACT: Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2012; 3:12. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2012.00012 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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- "In the present study, the vanillin antimicrobial effect was also dependent on time, temperature, culture medium, and the microorganism target. Fitzgerald et al. (2005) investigated the relationship between the structure of vanillin and its antimicrobial activity and found that the aldehyde group in vanillin is the main responsible for its antimicrobial effect despite the influence of the type and position of some of the lateral groups in the benzene ring. Due to their hydrophobic nature, the vanillin antimicrobial mechanism is mainly based on its ability to destroy the plasmatic membrane of the microbial cells through interaction with the lipids or proteins, or with both structures, with a subsequent loss of the ionic gradient and inhibition of the respiratory activity. "
ABSTRACT: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of vanillin against Listeria monocytogenes Scott A and Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined in tripticase soy broth (TSB), pH 7 and 6, incubated at 35 °C/24 h and in semi-skim milk incubated at 35 °C/24 h and 7 °C/14 days. The influence of the fat content of milk on the antimicrobial activity of vanillin was tested in whole and skim milk incubated at 7 °C/14 days. Mixtures of clove and cinnamon with vanillin were also evaluated in semi skim milk incubated at 7 °C. The MICs for L. monocytogenes were 3,000 ppm in TSB (pH 7) and 2,800 ppm in TSB (pH 6). The MICs for E. coli O157:H7 were 2,800 ppm in TSB (pH 7) and 2,400 ppm in TSB (pH 6). The MBCs in TSB were 8,000 ppm for L. monocytogenes and 6,000 ppm for E. coli O157:H7. The pH values assayed did not influence significantly the MIC or MBC in TSB. The MICs in semi-skim milk for L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were 4,000 and 3,000 ppm at 35 °C/24 h, and 2,500 and 1,000 ppm at 7 °C/7 days, respectively. The MBCs were 20,000 ppm for L. monocytogenes and 11,000 ppm for E. coli O157:H7. High incubation temperatures did not affect the MBC but increased the MIC of the vanillin in milk. This effect could be attributed to the increased membrane fluidity and to the membrane perturbing activity of vanillin at low temperatures. The fat in milk reduced significantly the antimicrobial activity of vanillin, probably due to effect protective of the fat molecules. Mixtures of clove and cinnamon leaves inhibited the growth of L. monocytogenes in a similar way that vanillin alone but had a synergistic effect on the E. coli O157:H7. Mixtures of cinnamon bark and vanillin had always a synergistic effect and some of the combination assayed showed bactericidal activity on the population of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O 157:H7.Food and Bioprocess Technology 08/2010; 5(6). DOI:10.1007/s11947-010-0484-4 · 3.13 Impact Factor