Small Interference RNA-mediated Gene Silencing of Human Biliverdin Reductase, but Not That of Heme Oxygenase-1, Attenuates Arsenite-mediated Induction of the Oxygenase and Increases Apoptosis in 293A Kidney Cells
BVR reduces biliverdin, the HO-1 and HO-2 product, to bilirubin. Human biliverdin (BVR) is a serine/threonine kinase activated by free radicals. It is a leucine zipper (bZip) DNA-binding protein and a regulatory factor for 8/7-bp AP-1-regulated genes, including HO-1 and ATF-2/CREB. Presently, small interference (si) RNA constructs were used to investigate the role of human BVR in sodium arsenite (As)-mediated induction of HO-1 and in cytoprotection against apoptosis. Activation of BVR involved increased serine/threonine phosphorylation but not its protein or transcript levels. The peak activity at 1 h (4-5-fold) after treatment of 293A cells with 5 mum As preceded induction of HO-1 expression by 3 h. The following suggests BVR involvement in regulating oxidative stress response of HO-1: siBVR attenuated As-mediated increase in HO-1 expression; siBVR, but not siHO-1, inhibited As-dependent increased c-jun promoter activity; treatment of cells with As increased AP-1 binding of nuclear proteins; BVR was identified in the DNA-protein complex; and AP-1 binding of the in vitro translated BVR was phosphorylation-dependent and was attenuated by biliverdin. Most unexpectedly, cells transfected with siBVR, but not siHO-1, displayed a 4-fold increase in apoptotic cells when treated with 10 mum As as detected by flow cytometry. The presence of BVR small interference RNA augmented the effect of As on levels of cytochrome c, TRAIL, and DR-5 mRNA and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. The findings describe the function of BVR in HO-1 oxidative response and, demonstrate, for the first time, not only that BVR advances the role of HO-1 in cytoprotection but also affords cytoprotection independent of heme degradation.
"BLVR, the other enzyme involved in the heme catabolic pathway, is also implicated in the oxidative stress response . Apart from its antioxidative effects, a cytoprotective action independent of heme degradation has been reported , . In fact, BLVR has been demonstrated to affect cell signaling pathways by regulating stress-responsive genes, including both HMOX1
, , and HMOX2
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with systemic oxidative stress. Since the heme catabolic pathway plays an important role in antioxidant protection, we attempted to assess the gene expression of key enzymes of heme catabolism, heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2), and biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) in the liver and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of patients chronically infected with HCV.
Gene expressions (HMOX1, HMOX2, BLVRA) and HCV RNA were analyzed in PBL of HCV treatment naïve patients (n = 58) and controls (n = 55), with a subset of HCV patients having data on hepatic gene expression (n = 35). Based upon the therapeutic outcome, HCV patients were classified as either responders (n = 38) or treatment-failure patients (n = 20). Blood samples in HCV patients were collected at day 0, and week 12, 24, 36, and 48 after the initiation of standard antiviral therapy.
Compared to the controls, substantially increased BLVRA expression was detected in PBL (p<0.001) of therapeutically naïve HCV patients. mRNA levels of BLVRA in PBL closely correlated with those in liver tissue (r2 = 0.347,p = 0.03). A marked difference in BLVRA expression in PBL between the sustained responders and patients with treatment failure was detected at week 0 and during the follow-up (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that BLVRA basal expression in PBL was an independent predictor for sustained virological response (OR 15; 95% CI 1.05-214.2; P = 0.046). HMOX1/2 expression did not have any effect on the treatment outcome.
Our results suggest that patients with chronic HCV infection significantly upregulate BLVRA expression in PBL. The lack of BLVRA overexpression is associated with non-responsiveness to standard antiviral therapy; whereas, HMOX1/2 does not seem to have any predictive potential.
PLoS ONE 03/2013; 8(3):e57555. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0057555 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Silencing BVR leads to a depletion of cellular bilirubin, increases cellular ROS and promotes apoptotic death in neuronal cultures (Baranano et al., 2002). Finally BVR can increase bilirubin production from heme degradation during oxidative stress (Miralem et al., 2005). In turn, the increase in UCB inhibits BVR and HO activity, maintaining a balanced intracellular biliverdin/bilirubin ratio (Maines, 2005). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bilirubin, the end-product of heme catabolism, circulates in non-pathological plasma mostly as a protein-bound species. When bilirubin concentration builds up, the free fraction of the molecule increases. Unbound bilirubin then diffuses across blood-brain interfaces (BBIs) into the brain, where it accumulates and exerts neurotoxic effects. In this classical view of bilirubin neurotoxicity, BBIs act merely as structural barriers impeding the penetration of the pigment-bound carrier protein, and neural cells are considered as passive targets of its toxicity. Yet, the role of BBIs in the occurrence of bilirubin encephalopathy appears more complex than being simple barriers to the diffusion of bilirubin, and neural cells such as astrocytes and neurons can play an active role in controlling the balance between the neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. This article reviews the emerging in vivo and in vitro data showing that transport and metabolic detoxification mechanisms at the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers may modulate bilirubin flux across both cellular interfaces, and that these protective functions can be affected in chronic unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Then the in vivo and in vitro arguments in favor of the physiological antioxidant function of intracerebral bilirubin are presented, as well as the potential role of transporters such as ABCC1 and metabolizing enzymes such as cytochromes P-450 in setting the cerebral cell- and structure-specific toxicity of bilirubin following hyperbilirubinemia. The relevance of these data to the pathophysiology of bilirubin-induced neurological diseases is discussed.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 05/2012; 3:89. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2012.00089 · 3.80 Impact Factor
"In addition, these authors criticized the high hydrogen peroxide concentrations employed by Stocker and coworkers as well as the time point at which cell death and ROS measurements were detected (4–8 h) in contrast to the maximum protection observed by BVR at 24 h. In the direct reply letter to the editor, Stocker and Maghzal pointed out that previous work supporting a role for BVR in cytoprotection and antioxidant effects (e.g., Miralem et al., 2005; Maines, 2007) provided beneficial data that was largely independent of the presence of BR and the reductase activity of BVR and were therefore not in support of the antioxidant BV/BR/BVR redox cycle (Stocker and Maghzal, 2009). Even more important, these authors emphasized that BVR depletion also failed to affect the death of cells loaded with BV or BR prior to exposure to a 40-fold molar excess of H 2 O 2 (Maghzal et al., 2009), whereas Snyder and associates reported BR to be able to defend against a 10,000-fold excess of H 2 O 2 (Baranano et al., 2002). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signaling events are involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction and represent a major contribution to vascular regulation. Molecular signaling is highly dependent on ROS. But depending on the amount of ROS production it might have toxic or protective effects. Despite a large number of negative outcomes in large clinical trials (e.g., HOPE, HOPE-TOO), antioxidant molecules and agents are important players to influence the critical balance between production and elimination of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. However, chronic systemic antioxidant therapy lacks clinical efficacy, probably by interfering with important physiological redox signaling pathways. Therefore, it may be a much more promising attempt to induce intrinsic antioxidant pathways in order to increase the antioxidants not systemically but at the place of oxidative stress and complications. Among others, heme oxygenase (HO) has been shown to be important for attenuating the overall production of ROS in a broad range of disease states through its ability to degrade heme and to produce carbon monoxide and biliverdin/bilirubin. With the present review we would like to highlight the important antioxidant role of the HO system and especially discuss the contribution of the biliverdin, bilirubin, and biliverdin reductase (BVR) to these beneficial effects. The BVR was reported to confer an antioxidant redox amplification cycle by which low, physiological bilirubin concentrations confer potent antioxidant protection via recycling of biliverdin from oxidized bilirubin by the BVR, linking this sink for oxidants to the NADPH pool. To date the existence and role of this antioxidant redox cycle is still under debate and we present and discuss the pros and cons as well as our own findings on this topic.
Frontiers in Pharmacology 03/2012; 3:30. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2012.00030 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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