Social stress-associated depression in adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).
ABSTRACT This paper describes a behavior pattern in adult female cynomolgus monkeys that has several behavioral and physiological characteristics in common with human depression including reduced body fat, low levels of activity, high heart rate, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis disturbances, and increased mortality. Under certain circumstances, this depressive behavior appears more common in socially stressed subordinate, than dominant, females. This is the first animal model of social stress-related depression in females and the first primate model of adult depression. It is important to have a female animal model of depression because women are more likely to experience a clinically significant depression than men, and depression in women is often associated with changes in reproductive system function. This model is particularly useful because these monkeys have menstrual cycles that are similar to those of women, and those that exhibit depressive behavior have relatively low levels of ovarian steroids. These monkeys may be a useful model of reproductive system-associated mood disorders in females.
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ABSTRACT: Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17-22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression.Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:9220. DOI:10.1038/srep09220 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Though stress is an integrated part of the modern life, defining stress in biological systems is difficult. Anxiety, medication, metabolic disorder, neuro-endocrinological abnormalities, immunological responses, neuro-immune interaction and several other internal and external factors are important which induce stress and pain in higher organisms. Stress and pain are often synonymous and overlapping to a large extent, but these two responses are different at the behavioral, cellular and molecular levels. Importance of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) group of non-selective cation channels in the development and regulation of different forms of pain is well established. However, recent studies confirmed that TRPs can regulate neuroplastic changes through neuro-endocrine signaling, neuro-immune interactions and psychological state variables suggesting that abnormalities in TRP-signaling can indeed affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and several other metabolic pathways and thus may generate stress at various levels. Therefore, TRPs are important factors that can link stress with pain. This review summarizes the role of TRPs, their effects and clinical implications in the context of different types of pain which can be relevant for stress too.Frontiers in bioscience (Scholar edition) 01/2013; S5:19-38.