The aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to describe the patterns of comorbid psychiatric diagnosis and psychotropic drug therapy for children enrolled in a Medicaid-managed care program and diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 2000 and (2) to examine child and provider characteristics associated with psychotropic medication patterns for this population. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine correlates of stimulant and seven nonstimulant psychotropic medication classes (alpha-agonists, mood stabilizer/anticonvulsant, antianxiety, standard antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic, and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA)/other antidepressant and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant). With the exception of conduct disorders (odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.40), comorbid disorders had a significant protective effect (odds ratio less than 1) on dispensing stimulants. After adjusting for covariates, stimulant dispensing was strongly correlated with the interactions of geographic region with race/ethnicity and provider type. Children residing in the upstate New York region had an approximately ten-fold greater chance of being dispensed a stimulant compared to similar children in New York City. Utilizing a mental health provider increased the chance of being dispensed a stimulant by factor of two for children from New York City of any race/ethnicity group. Models predicting nonstimulant drug dispensing were distinct from the stimulant model. After adjusting for covariates, nonstimulant psychotropic medication dispensing was correlated with clinical factors, including comorbid disorder category and use of a mental health provider, as well as notable sociodemographic factors. Complex psychotropic medication and comorbid psychiatric disorder patterns were evident for this low-income population of children with ADHD. The roles of clinical, patient, and provider factors need to be better understood to explain these patterns of stimulant and nonstimulant psychotropic medications dispensed.
"This might have lead to some misclassification. Among children with ADHD diagnoses, the presence of certain psychiatric comorbidities decreased the probability of drug prescriptions in two US-based studies using Medicaid data [52,53]. This might indicate that comorbidity is less prevalent in MPH-treated patients than in ADHD patients overall, however, we do not know whether these results are transferable to Germany. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most common drug treatment of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Treatment with MPH is contraindicated in the presence of certain psychiatric, cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions. We assessed MPH treatment prevalence and incidence and the frequency of comorbid conditions related to these contraindications in new MPH users compared to a control group without ADHD and ADHD medication.
We used health care data for the years 2004 to 2006 from the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD) which includes about 18% of the German population. MPH treatment prevalence and incidence was assessed based on at least one MPH prescription in the given year. In MPH users, the prevalence of psychiatric and other comorbidities was assessed in the quarter of the first MPH prescription and the three preceding quarters, whereas in controls it was assessed in the earliest four quarters of continuous insurance time starting at 01.01.2004 or the start of insurance if this was later. Differences in the presence of comorbid diagnoses between MPH users and controls were tested by logistic regression.
In 2005, 1.5% of all children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years (2.3% of males and 0.6% of females) received MPH in Germany. The proportion of children with a record of a psychiatric comorbidity in any of the nine ICD categories of diagnoses was substantially higher in new MPH users (83%) compared to controls (20%). Cerebro- and cardiovascular comorbidities were rare in general. Still, among new MPH users, 2% of males and females had a diagnosis of a pre-existing cardiovascular disorder but only 1.2% of controls.
Besides MPH treatment prevalence we first publish age-specific incidence rates for Germany. A high proportion of children who were started on MPH had a record of a psychiatric comorbidity preceding the first prescription. Cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions were rare in the studied age range, but still higher among children who received MPH than in the control group. Results show that in a substantial subgroup of patients, comorbidities require a thorough weighting of possible risks of MPH medication against the risks of untreated ADHD.
"Given that most ADHD symptoms may persist into adulthood, further longitudinal studies would be appropriate to examine health or developmental outcomes in those who received their initial ADHD diagnosis in adolescence and to understand potential reasons to prematurely discontinue treatment. Our findings challenge the current controversial views, based on cross-sectionally statistical adjustment approach, about comorbidity in medication utilization patterns among ADHDaffected children (Boles et al. 2001; Radigan et al. 2005; Chen et al. 2009; Faber et al. 2010). Specifically, following a group of newly diagnosed ADHD children for 1–2 years, we found that the role of co-morbidity was not uniform throughout the treatment process; the predictor profile for MPH initiation appears dissimilar across two groups defined by prior history of mental disorders . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous population-based studies have identified factors accounting for differential utilization of psychotropic medications among young patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHDs); yet, few analyses have addressed changes in such factors that can occur in the help-seeking process. The aim of this study was to examine patient- and service provider-level predictors for methylphenidate (MPH) initiation and discontinuation.
This cohort study included 10,153 newly diagnosed ADHD patients under 18 years of age in 2000, identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The risk association was estimated by time-dependent survival analyses, as indexed by hazard ratio.
Approximately 30% of young people received MPH treatment within the year of their ADHD diagnosis, and virtually none remained in treatment beyond 12 months. Regardless of co-morbidity status, the following were significantly associated with earlier initiation of MPH treatment: older age (e.g., adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for age 12-17 = 4.5-7.6), lower socioeconomic status (aHR = 1.2-1.4), southern residence (aHR = 1.4-1.6), receiving the diagnosis while school was in session (aHR = 1.3-1.4), receiving the diagnosis from a physician specializing in pediatrics or psychiatry (aHR = 7.3-16.8), and receiving the diagnosis in a district hospital/clinic (aHR = 1.3-1.7). However, once treatment started, older ages appeared to increase the risk of early discontinuation by 15%, and the corresponding estimates for receiving initial MPH in a regional hospital or district hospital/clinic were 27% and 32%, respectively. Change in treatment location upon subsequent visit was associated with a 58% reduction in early discontinuation.
This information about time-varying predictors for MPH utilization throughout treatment may provide insight into the delivery of pediatric mental health services and has important implications for the design of clinical treatment programs.
Journal of child and adolescent psychopharmacology 06/2011; 21(3):265-73. DOI:10.1089/cap.2010.0107 · 2.93 Impact Factor
"Dessa forma, o uso de medicação poderia aumentar a capacidade da criança de lidar de forma positiva com o estressor, no caso, o TDAH. Existem diversos fatores que se associam, por sua vez, à chance de ser medicado, dentre eles, ser atendido por um profissional de saúde mental, região geográfica de residência e fatores sociodemográficos (Radigan et al., 2005). A família é um importante contexto para que a criança aprenda a se relacionar com o mundo. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this article is to perform an update regarding the definition of resilience, risk factors and protective factors, and to correlate them with the impact of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Resilience is the capacity to resist and overcome adversity. Family is associated with the concept of resilience not only because of its capacity to interfere with the resilience of its members, but also because of its ability to respond as a functional unit when challenged with adversity. Relationships with affectively meaningful figures during childhood, the number of adverse events to which the individual is submitted and his subjective understanding of the stressor modify the ability to be resilient. ADHD has a smaller negative impact in children without conduct problems, social relationship problems, somatic symptoms or coordination problems.
Jornal brasileiro de psiquiatria 12/2006; 56:45-49. DOI:10.1590/S0047-20852007000500010
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