Article

Vaccination for the prevention of cysticercosis.

Veterinary Clinical Centre, The University of Melbourne, Werribee, Victoria, Australia.
Developments in biologicals 02/2004; 119:361-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several species of taeniid cestode parasites cause cysticercosis in their intermediate hosts. The most important species is Taenia solium, which infects pigs as the natural animal intermediate host but also may infect humans as intermediate hosts, leading to the disease known as neurocysticercosis. T. solium has been identified as a potentially eradicable disease and increasing attention is being placed on efforts to control transmission of the parasite. One option to assist with control of the disease is to prevent infection occurring in pigs by vaccination, thereby breaking the parasite's life-cycle and removing the source of infection for humans. Several approaches are being examined towards development of vaccines against T. solium, one of which is the application of recombinant oncosphere antigens. Two different oncosphere antigens, designated TSOL18 and TSOL45, have been evaluated, each of which has been shown to induce complete or near complete protection against experimental challenge infection in four separate vaccine trials in pigs. Investigations have begun towards characterising various aspects of this vaccine before undertaking controlled field trials. The TSOL18/TSOL45 vaccine has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the control and, potentially, the eradication of human neurocysticercosis.

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    • "A major stumbling block, even with successful natural antigens, has been the development of effective synthetic or recombinant vaccines. Other than for the few successes in vaccinating against cestodes (Gauci et al., 2005; Lightowlers, 2004), development of recombinant antigens for control of veterinary parasites has been limited (Zarlenga, 2004). This may, in part, reflect the key roles that coevolution and adaptation have played in the host– parasite relationship (Zarlenga et al., 2006). "
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    • "Anthelmintic treatments using praziquantel or niclosamide are indicated for all tapeworm carriers. Many groups of researchers are engaged to expand the understanding of some aspects of T. solium infections, such as: the potential use of porcine cysticercosis vaccines [6], improved immunodiagnostic methods for both taeniosis and cysticercosis [7], a porcine therapy for the control of infected pigs, the relationship between human epilepsy and NCC, standardized diagnostic criteria and treatment of human NCC, experimental laboratory animal models for NCC and cysticercosis , mathematical models to study T. solium distribution and impact [8] "
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    • "Many groups of researchers are engaged to expand the understanding of some aspects of T. solium infections, such as: the potential use of porcine cysticercosis vaccines [6] "
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    ABSTRACT: In many developing and transition countries, parasitic zoonoses such as cysticercosis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis, cause serious human suffering and considerable losses in livestock and human productivity, thus posing a significant hindrance to economic development. Although, effective and reliable tools for the diagnosis, prevention and control of parasitic zoonoses are now available, their implementation has not always been successful in many countries. This is primarily due to the lack of awareness on the presence or impact of the causing parasites (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Echinococcus spp and Trichinella spp). In addition, the needed intersectoral cooperation, resource management and political commitment for their control are (also) absent. FAO's regular programme has established a global network of professionals directly involved in zoonotic and food borne diseases. The network provides a basic framework for the spread of information related to the diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases including cysticercosis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis.
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