Children’s Exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds as Determined by Longitudinal Measurements in Blood

University of Texas School of Public Health, Brownsville Regional Campus, Brownsville, Texas, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 04/2005; 113(3):342-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.7412
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Blood concentrations of 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured up to four times over 2 years in a probability sample of more than 150 children from two poor, minority neighborhoods in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Blood levels of benzene, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, and m-/p-xylene were comparable with those measured in selected adults from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), whereas concentrations of ethylbenzene, tetrachloroethylene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and o-xylene were two or more times lower in the children. Blood levels of styrene were more than twice as high, and for about 10% of the children 1,4-dichlorobenzene levels were greater than or equal to 10 times higher compared with NHANES III subjects. We observed strong statistical associations between numerous pairwise combinations of individual VOCs in blood (e.g., benzene and m-/p-xylene, m-/p-xylene and o-xylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and m-/p-xylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane and trichloroethene). Between-child variability was higher than within-child variability for 1,4-dichlorobenzene and tetrachloroethylene. Between- and within-child variability were approximately the same for ethylbenzene and 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and between-child was lower than within-child variability for the other seven compounds. Two-day, integrated personal air measurements explained almost 79% of the variance in blood levels for 1,4-dichlorobenzene and approximately 20% for tetrachloroethylene, toluene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene. Personal air measurements explained much less of the variance (between 0.5 and 8%) for trichloroethene, styrene, benzene, and ethylbenzene. We observed no significant statistical associations between total urinary cotinine (a biomarker for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke) and blood VOC concentrations. For siblings living in the same household, we found strong statistical associations between measured blood VOC concentrations.

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    • "TCE crosses the placenta and can be detected in breast milk (Beamer et al., 2012). Studies of school-aged children found detectable blood levels of TCE in approximately 6% of the subjects (Adgate et al., 2004; Sexton et al., 2005). One of the predominant non-cancer health effects associated with exposure to TCE is neurotoxicity (Bale et al., 2011; Chiu et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that low-level postnatal and early life exposure to the environmental contaminant, trichloroethylene (TCE), in the drinking water of MRL+/+ mice altered glutathione redox homeostasis and increased biomarkers of oxidative stress indicating a more oxidized state. Plasma metabolites along the interrelated transmethylation pathway were also altered indicating impaired methylation capacity. Here we extend these findings to further characterize the impact of TCE exposure in mice exposed to water only or two doses of TCE in the drinking water (0, 2, and 28 mg/kg/day) postnatally from birth until 6 weeks of age on redox homeostasis and biomarkers of oxidative stress in the cerebellum. In addition, pathway intermediates involved in methyl metabolism and global DNA methylation patterns were examined in cerebellar tissue. Because the cerebellum is functionally important for coordinating motor activity, including exploratory and social approach behaviors, these parameters were evaluated in the present study. Mice exposed to 28 mg/kg/day TCE exhibited increased locomotor activity over time as compared with control mice. In the novel object exploration test, these mice were more likely to enter the zone with the novel object as compared to control mice Similar results were obtained in a second test when an unfamiliar mouse was introduced into the testing arena. The results show for the first time that postnatal exposure to TCE causes key metabolic changes in the cerebellum that may contribute to global DNA methylation deficits and behavioral alterations in TCE-exposed mice.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 04/2013; 269(3). DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2013.03.025 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    • "are low - income and minority reference resident breath samples at the clinic ) . This is inconsistent with the general view that children will tend to have higher exposures than adults ( e . g . , Needham and Sexton , 2000 ; Stein et al . , 2002 ; Schwenk et al . , 2003 ) . However , these results are consistent with other biomonitoring reports . Sexton et al . ( 2005 , 2006 ) found that 3 - to 10 - year - old children had a median blood perchloroethylene level of 0 . 03 ng / mL compared to a median blood level of 0 . 06 ng / mL among adult participants in NHANES III . Reasons for a difference in blood perchloroethylene level between children and adults are unknown , but the reasons may relate to dif"
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    ABSTRACT: In many cities, dry cleaners using perchloroethylene are frequently located in multifamily residential buildings and often cause elevated indoor air levels of perchloroethylene throughout the building. To assess individual perchloroethylene exposures associated with co-located dry cleaners, we measured perchloroethylene in residential indoor air, and in blood and breath of adults and children residing in buildings with a dry cleaner as part of the New York City (NYC) Perc Project. We also measured perchloroethylene in indoor air, and in blood and breath of residents of buildings without a dry cleaner for comparison. Here, we evaluate whether an environmental disparity in perchloroethylene exposures is present. Study participants are stratified by residential building type (dry cleaner or reference) and socioeconomic characteristics (race/ethnicity and income); measures of perchloroethylene exposure are examined; and, the influence of stratified variables and other factors on perchloroethylene exposure is assessed using multivariate regression. All measures of perchloroethylene exposure for residents of buildings with a dry cleaner indicated a socioeconomic disparity. Mean indoor air perchloroethylene levels were about five times higher in minority (82.5ug/m3) than in non-minority (16.5ug/m3) households, and about six times higher in low-income (105.5ug/m3) than in high income (17.8ug/m3) households. Mean blood perchloroethylene levels in minority children (0.27ng/mL) and adults (0.46ng/mL) were about two and three times higher than in non-minority children (0.12ng/mL) and adults (0.15ng/mL), respectively. Mean blood perchloroethylene levels in low income children (0.34ng/mL) and adults (0.62ng/mL) were about three and four times higher than in high income children (0.11ng/mL) and adults (0.14ng/mL), respectively. A less marked socioeconomic disparity was observed in perchloroethylene breath levels with minority and low income residents having slightly higher levels than non-minority and high income residents. Multivariate regression affirmed that indoor air perchloroethylene level in dry cleaner buildings was the single most important factor determining perchloroethylene in blood and breath. Neither age, gender, nor socioeconomic status significantly influenced perchloroethylene levels in breath or blood. We previously reported that increased indoor air, breath, and blood perchloroethylene levels among NYC Perc Project child participants were associated with an increased risk for slightly altered vision. Thus, the disproportionately elevated perchloroethylene exposures of minority and low-income child residents of buildings with a dry cleaner shown here constitutes an environmental exposure disparity with potential public health consequences. Among residents of buildings without a dry cleaner, we observed some small increases in perchloroethylene breath and blood levels among non-minority or high income residents compared to minority or low income residents. These differences were not attributable to differences in indoor air levels of perchloroethylene which did not differ across socioeconomic categories, but appear to be associated with more frequent exposures dry cleaned garments.
    Environmental Research 02/2013; 122. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2013.02.001 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    • "In general, for the non-smoking general population and the urban worker, the major source of benzene exposure is inhalation of vapors from petroleum products and automobile exhaust. Since these exposures can be intermittent, vary over time, and benzene and its metabolites are short-lived in the body, temporal (daily/ weekly) variability of biomarker concentrations within individuals is expected (Hays et al., 2012; Sexton et al., 2005). Spot urine or blood sampling only reflect a ''snapshot'' concentration, and individuals with concentrations in the upper end of the population distribution likely reflect short-term peak exposures. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract A framework of "Common Criteria" (i.e. a series of questions) has been developed to inform the use and evaluation of biomonitoring data in the context of human exposure and risk assessment. The data-rich chemical benzene was selected for use in a case study to assess whether refinement of the Common Criteria framework was necessary, and to gain additional perspective on approaches for integrating biomonitoring data into a risk-based context. The available data for benzene satisfied most of the Common Criteria and allowed for a risk-based evaluation of the benzene biomonitoring data. In general, biomarker (blood benzene, urinary benzene and urinary S-phenylmercapturic acid) central tendency (i.e. mean, median and geometric mean) concentrations for non-smokers are at or below the predicted blood or urine concentrations that would correspond to exposure at the US Environmental Protection Agency reference concentration (30 µg/m(3)), but greater than blood or urine concentrations relating to the air concentration at the 1 × 10(-5) excess cancer risk (2.9 µg/m(3)). Smokers clearly have higher levels of benzene exposure, and biomarker levels of benzene for non-smokers are generally consistent with ambient air monitoring results. While some biomarkers of benzene are specific indicators of exposure, the interpretation of benzene biomonitoring levels in a health-risk context are complicated by issues associated with short half-lives and gaps in knowledge regarding the relationship between the biomarkers and subsequent toxic effects.
    Critical Reviews in Toxicology 02/2013; 43(2):119-53. DOI:10.3109/10408444.2012.756455 · 5.10 Impact Factor
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