Autocrine and paracrine regulation of interleukin-8 expression in lung cancer cells
ABSTRACT We had previously demonstrated that lung cancer cells, upon contact with macrophages, could be induced to secrete angiogenic factors to promote tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we focused on the paracrine and autocrine regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in sensitized lung cancer cells after interacting with macrophages. We found that the IL-8 mRNA expression in lung cancer cells significantly increased after coculture with phorbol myristate acetate-treated THP-1 cells and human primary lung macrophages. Fresh lung cancer CL1-5 cells cocultured with macrophage-sensitized lung cancer cells still had a 35% of increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The addition of anti-inflammatory agents pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, pentoxifylline, aspirin, and dexamethasone could completely suppress the expression of IL-8 mRNA in fresh/sensitized lung cancer cell cocultures. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1alpha could induce IL-8 expression in lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Neutralization with TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies in cocultures decreased the levels of IL-8 expression in sensitized lung cancer cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activity was also suppressed by the same antibodies, as confirmed by a reporter gene assay and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our results highly suggest that both autocrine and paracrine regulation are involved in IL-8 expression of lung cancer cells cocultured with macrophage. Also, the regulations of IL-8 expression in lung cancer cells were through the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway and modulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha.
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- "Proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α increase oxidative stress via the initiation of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Barrett et al., 1999) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (Kofler et al., 2005). Production of these cytokines and radicals can contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer (Ekmekcioglu et al., 2005; Yao et al., 2005). The pathogenesis of cigarette smoke or arsenic-induced lung injury may involve the participation of toxic metabolites of both cigarette smoke and arsenic that elicit an inflammatory response resulting in oxidative stress that may lead to neoplastic transformation of cells (Chung-man et al., 2001; Wie et al., 2002). "
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological evidence has indicated that arsenic and cigarette smoking exposure act synergistically to increase the incidence of lung cancer. Since oxidative damage of DNA has been linked to cancer, our hypothesis is that aerosolized arsenic and cigarette smoke work synergistically to increase oxidative stress and increase DNA oxidation in the lung. To test this hypothesis male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to room air (control), aerosolized arsenic compounds (3.2 mg/m3 for 30 minutes), cigarette smoke (5 mg/m3 for 30 minutes), or both smoke and arsenic. Exposures were for 5 days/week for 5 or 28-days. Animals were sacrificed one day after the last exposure. In the 28-day group, glutathione levels and DNA oxidation (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG)) were determined. Our results show that in the 28-day arsenic/smoke group there was a significant decrease in both the reduced and total glutathione levels compared with arsenic or smoke alone. This correlated with a 5-fold increase in DNA oxidation as shown by HPLC. Immunohistochemical localization of 8-oxo-dG showed increase staining in nuclei of airway epithelium and subadjacent interstitial cells. These results show that dual exposure of arsenic and cigarette smoke at environmentally relevant levels can act synergistically to cause DNA damage.Toxicologic Pathology 02/2006; 34(4):396-404. DOI:10.1080/01926230600824926 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This work presents a novel microfluidic coculture system that improves the accuracy of evaluating the interaction between cocultured cell types. A microfluidic coculture chip, fabricated by CO(2) laser direct-writing on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), was designed to separate two cell types using a microchannel, while permitting transfer of cellular media. The system has two up-stream wells and five down-stream wells. As an example, released inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)), activated in up-stream macrophages, flow through a microfluidic mixing system, generating linear concentration gradients in down-stream wells and inducing down-stream osteoblasts to release prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a well-known bone resorption marker. Osteoblast viability was assessed by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. This novel coculture system can be applied to evaluate cell-cell interaction while physically separating interacting cells.Biomedical Microdevices 04/2006; 8(1):65-71. DOI:10.1007/s10544-006-6384-8 · 2.77 Impact Factor