Article

Autocrine and paracrine regulation of interleukin-8 expression in lung cancer cells.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan 100, ROC.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology (Impact Factor: 4.11). 07/2005; 32(6):540-7. DOI: 10.1165/rcmb.2004-0223OC
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We had previously demonstrated that lung cancer cells, upon contact with macrophages, could be induced to secrete angiogenic factors to promote tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we focused on the paracrine and autocrine regulation of interleukin (IL)-8 expression in sensitized lung cancer cells after interacting with macrophages. We found that the IL-8 mRNA expression in lung cancer cells significantly increased after coculture with phorbol myristate acetate-treated THP-1 cells and human primary lung macrophages. Fresh lung cancer CL1-5 cells cocultured with macrophage-sensitized lung cancer cells still had a 35% of increase in IL-8 mRNA expression. The addition of anti-inflammatory agents pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, pentoxifylline, aspirin, and dexamethasone could completely suppress the expression of IL-8 mRNA in fresh/sensitized lung cancer cell cocultures. Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-1alpha could induce IL-8 expression in lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Neutralization with TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies in cocultures decreased the levels of IL-8 expression in sensitized lung cancer cells. Nuclear factor-kappaB transcriptional activity was also suppressed by the same antibodies, as confirmed by a reporter gene assay and the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Our results highly suggest that both autocrine and paracrine regulation are involved in IL-8 expression of lung cancer cells cocultured with macrophage. Also, the regulations of IL-8 expression in lung cancer cells were through the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway and modulated by TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
76 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis is an essential process for supplying rapidly growing malignant tissues with essential nutrients and oxygen. An angiogenic switch allows tumor cells to survive and grow, and provides them access to vasculature resulting in metastatic disease. Monocyte-derived macrophages recruited and reprogrammed by tumor cells serve as a major source of angiogenic factors boosting the angiogenic switch. Tumor endothelium releases angiopoietin-2 and further facilitates recruitment of TIE2 receptor expressing monocytes (TEM) into tumor sites. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) sense hypoxia in avascular areas of tumors, and react by production of angiogenic factors such as VEGFA. VEGFA stimulates chemotaxis of endothelial cells (EC) and macrophages. In some tumors, TAM appeared to be a major source of MMP9. Elevated expression of MMP9 by TAM mediates extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and the release of bioactive VEGFA. Other angiogenic factors released by TAM include basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), thymidine phosphorylase (TP), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), and adrenomedullin (ADM). The same factors used by macrophages for the induction of angiogenesis [like vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and MMP9] support lymphangiogenesis. TAM can express LYVE-1, one of the established markers of lymphatic endothelium. TAM support tumor lymphangiogenesis not only by secretion of pro-lymphangiogenic factors but also by trans-differentiation into lymphatic EC. New pro-angiogenic factor YKL-40 belongs to a family of mammalian chitinase-like proteins (CLP) that act as cytokines or growth factors. Human CLP family comprises YKL-40, YKL-39, and SI-CLP. Production of all three CLP in macrophages is antagonistically regulated by cytokines. It was recently established that YKL-40 induces angiogenesis in vitro and in animal tumor models. YKL-40-neutralizing monoclonal antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression. The role of YKL-39 and SI-CLP in tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis remains to be investigated.
    Frontiers in Physiology 03/2014; 5:75. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00075
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Conditional mediums (CMs) from glioma cells U87, GBM-8401, and C6 significantly induced iNOS protein and NO production by microglial cells BV-2 but without altering the cell viability or cell-cycle progression of BV2 microglia. Significant increases in intracellular peroxide by U87-CM and C6-CM were detected by a DCHF-DA assay, and vitamin (Vit) C and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC)-reduced intracellular peroxide levels elicited by CMs lead to inhibition of iNOS/NO production The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, U0126, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, SP600125, suppressed U87-CM- and C6-CM-induced iNOS/NO production by respectively blocking phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and JNK (pJNK) protein expressions stimulated by U87-CM and C6-CM. Increased migration of U87 and C6 glioma cells by a co-culture with BV-2 microglial cells or adding the nitric oxide (NO) donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) was observed, and that was blocked by adding an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N-nitro l-arginine methyl ester (NAME). Contributions of ROS, pERK, and pJNK to the migration of glioma cells was further demonstrated in a transwell coculture system of U87 and C6 gliomas with BV-2 microglial cells. Furthermore, expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 messenger (m)RNA in U87 and C6 cells were detected by an RT-PCR, and TNF-α and MCP-1 induced iNOS protein expression in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Neutralization of TNF-α or MCP-1 in U87-CM and C6-CM using a TNF-α or MCP-1 antibody inhibited iNOS protein expression, and increased intracellular peroxide by TNF-α or MCP-1 was identified in BV-2 cells. The reciprocal activation of glioma cells and microglia via ROS-dependent iNOS/NO elevation at least partially mediated by TNF-α and MCP-1 is elucidated. J. Cell. Physiol. 9999: XX–XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 12/2014; 229(12). DOI:10.1002/jcp.24659 · 3.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Urotensin II (U-II), an 11-amino acid peptide, exerts a wide range of actions in cardiovascular systems. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is secreted by endothelial cells, thereby enhancing endothelial cell survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. However, the interrelationship between U-II and IL-8 as well as the detailed intracellular mechanism of U-II in vascular endothelial cells remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of U-II on IL-8 expression and to explore its intracellular mechanism in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used. Expression of IL-8 was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and luciferase reporter assay. Western blot analyses and experiments with specific inhibitors were performed to reveal the downstream signaling pathways as concerned. U-II increased the mRNA/protein levels of IL-8 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The U-II effects were significantly inhibited by its receptor antagonist [Orn(5)]-URP. Western blot analyses and experiments with specific inhibitors indicated the involvement of phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in U-II-induced IL-8 expression. Luciferase reporter assay further revealed that U-II induces the transcriptional activity of IL-8. The site-directed mutagenesis indicated that the mutation of AP-1 and NF-kB binding sites reduced U-II-increased IL-8 promoter activities. Proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by U-II could be inhibited significantly by IL-8 RNA interference. The results show that U-II induces IL-8 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways and IL-8 is involved in the U-II-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e90278. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090278 · 3.53 Impact Factor
    This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched format