To determine whether the nonselective and relatively inexpensive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen would be effective in inhibiting colorectal cancer and might improve mortality in a mouse model.
The effects of ibuprofen on tumor growth inhibition and animal survival have been examined in both mouse and human colorectal cancer tumor models. Angiogenesis was measured by in vitro endothelial cell tube formation and immunohistochemistry.
Ibuprofen significantly inhibited cell proliferation in mouse (MC-26) and human (HT-29) colorectal cancer cell lines. In vitro angiogenesis assays also indicated that ibuprofen decreased both cell proliferation and tube formation. The administration of chow containing 1,360 ppm ibuprofen, which achieved an average plasma concentration of ibuprofen lower than the peak level achieved in humans at therapeutic doses, inhibited tumor growth by 40% to 82%. Fewer liver metastases were found in the ibuprofen group compared with the control group. In combination therapy with the standard antineoplastic agents, 5-fluorouracil, or irinotecan (CPT-11), tumor volumes in the groups with ibuprofen +/- CPT-11 or 5-fluorouracil were smaller than in the control group. Ibuprofen was similar to the cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor rofecoxib in its ability to suppress tumor growth and improve overall survival.
Ibuprofen, in part by modulating tumor angiogenesis, decreases both tumor growth and metastatic potential in mice. The ibuprofen doses were in the low range of therapeutic human plasma concentrations. Ibuprofen potentiates the antitumor properties of CPT-11 and improves survival of mice without increasing gastrointestinal toxicity.
"Treatment of SCI With Ghrelin, IBU, C16, and KD 879 anti-inflammatory therapy, ibuprofen has antiangiogenic properties, as demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo models (Farrell et al., 1988; Palayoor et al., 2003; Yao et al., 2005). Thus, ibuprofen may override any influence that C16 or KD might have on angiogenesis and in this regard might not be advisable to administer simultaneously . "
"Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of the drugs, which exhibit a similar elimination half life, the combination therapy used was: rosiglitazone as ACSL4 inhibitor , zileuton as LOX-5 inhibitor ,  and ibuprofen as a non-selective COX-2 inhibitor , . We assayed the effectiveness of therapy based on a combination of sub-effective doses of the different inhibitors. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4), which esterify mainly arachidonic acid (AA) into acyl-CoA, is increased in breast, colon and hepatocellular carcinoma. The transfection of MCF-7 cells with ACSL4 cDNA transforms the cells into a highly aggressive phenotype and controls both lipooxygenase-5 (LOX-5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) metabolism of AA, suggesting a causal role of ACSL4 in tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that ACSL4, LOX-5 and COX-2 may constitute potential therapeutic targets for the control of tumor growth. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a tetracycline Tet-Off system of MCF-7 xenograft model of breast cancer to confirm the effect of ACSL4 overexpression on tumor growth in vivo. We also aim to determine whether a combinatorial inhibition of the ACSL4-LOX-COX-2 pathway affects tumor growth in vivo using a xenograft model based on MDA-MB-231 cells, a highly aggressive breast cancer cell line naturally overexpressing ACSL4. The first novel finding is that stable transfection of MCF-7 cells with ACSL4 using the tetracycline Tet-Off system of MCF-7 cells resulted in development of growing tumors when injected into nude mice. Tumor xenograft development measured in animals that received doxycycline resulted in tumor growth inhibition. The tumors presented marked nuclear polymorphism, high mitotic index and low expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor. These results demonstrate the transformational capacity of ACSL4 overexpression. We examined the effect of a combination of inhibitors of ACSL4, LOX-5 and COX-2 on MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts. This treatment markedly reduced tumor growth in doses of these inhibitors that were otherwise ineffective when used alone, indicating a synergistic effect of the compounds. Our results suggest that these enzymes interact functionally and form an integrated system that operates in a concerted manner to regulate tumor growth and consequently may be potential therapeutic targets for the control of proliferation as well as metastatic potential of cancer cells.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40794. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040794 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"For example, using HT-29 cells, the combination of aspirin and 5-FU in vitro was effective in inhibiting cell proliferation, and increasing apoptosis by upregulating Bax. Another nonselective NSAID, ibuprofen , has also been shown to improve the effects of CPT-11, by modulating tumor angiogenesis . Several studies have also demonstrated a positive effect of combining specific COX-2 inhibitors with chemotherapy 5-FU and/or CPT-11 to promote tumor regression [34,35]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Higher cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression is often observed in aggressive colorectal cancers (CRCs). Here, we attempt to examine the association between COX-2 expression in therapy-refractory CRC, how it affects chemosensitivity, and whether, in primary tumors, it is predictive of clinical outcomes. Our results revealed higher COX-2 expression in chemoresistant CRC cells and tumor xenografts. In vitro, the combination of either aspirin or celecoxib with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was capable of improving chemosensitivity in chemorefractory CRC cells, but a synergistic effect with 5-FU could only be demonstrated with celecoxib. To examine the potential clinical significance of these observations, in vivo studies were undertaken, which also showed that the greatest tumor regression was achieved in chemoresistant xenografts after chemotherapy in combination with celecoxib, but not aspirin. We also noted that these chemoresistant tumors with higher COX-2 expression had a more aggressive growth rate. Given the dramatic response to a combination of celecoxib + 5-FU, the possibility that celecoxib may modulate chemosensitivity as a result of its ability to inhibit MDR-1 was examined. In addition, assessment of a tissue microarray consisting of 130 cases of CRCs revealed that, in humans, higher COX-2 expression was associated with poorer survival with a 68% increased risk of mortality, indicating that COX-2 expression is a marker of poor clinical outcome. The findings of this study point to a potential benefit of combining COX-2 inhibitors with current regimens to achieve better response in the treatment of therapy-refractory CRC and in using COX-2 expression as a prognostic marker to help identify individuals who would benefit the greatest from closer follow-up and more aggressive therapy.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 07/2012; 14(7):624-33. DOI:10.1593/neo.12486 · 4.25 Impact Factor
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