The disposition of nascent strands at stalled replication forks dictates the pathway of replisome loading during restart.
ABSTRACT Rescue of arrested and collapsed replication forks is essential for maintenance of genomic integrity. One system for origin of replication-independent loading of the DnaB replicative helicase and subsequent replisome reassembly requires the structure-specific recognition factor PriA and the assembly factors PriB and DnaT. Here, we provide biochemical evidence for an alternate system for DnaB loading that requires only PriC. Furthermore, the choice of which system is utilized during restart is dictated by the nature of the structure of the stalled replication fork. PriA-dependent reactions are most robust on fork structures with no gaps in the leading strand, such as is found at the junction of a D loop, while the PriC-dependent system preferentially utilizes fork structures with large gaps in the leading strand. These observations suggest that the type of initial damage on the DNA template and how the inactivated fork is processed ultimately influence the choice of enzymatic restart pathway.
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ABSTRACT: Stalled replication forks are sites of chromosome breakage and the formation of toxic recombination intermediates that undermine genomic stability. Thus replication fork repair and reactivation are essential processes. Among the many models of replication fork reactivation is one that invokes fork regression catalyzed by the strand exchange protein RecA as an intermediate in the processing of the stalled fork. We have investigated the replication fork regression activity of RecA using a reconstituted DNA replication system where the replisome is stalled by collision with leading-strand template damage. We find that RecA is unable to regress the stalled fork in the presence of the replisome and SSB. If the replication proteins are removed from the stalled fork, RecA will catalyze net regression as long as the Okazaki fragments are sealed. RecA-generated Holliday junctions can be detected by RuvC cleavage, although this is not a robust reaction. On the other hand, extensive branch migration by RecA, where a completely unwound product consisting of the paired nascent leading and lagging strands is produced, is observed under conditions where RuvC activity is suppressed. This branch migration reaction is inhibited by SSB, possibly accounting for the failure of RecA to generate products in the presence of the replication proteins. Interestingly, we find that the RecA-RuvC reaction is supported to differing extents depending on the template damage: Templates carrying a cyclopyrimidine dimer elicit more RecA-RuvC product than those carrying a synthetic abasic site. This difference could be ascribed to a higher affinity of RecA binding to DNAs carrying a thymidine dimer than to those with an abasic site.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2014; 289(41). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.587907 · 4.60 Impact Factor
- 08/2009; 2009. DOI:10.1128/ecosalplus.4.4.2
Article: Recombination and Replication.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The links between recombination and replication have been appreciated for decades and it is now generally accepted that these two fundamental aspects of DNA metabolism are inseparable: Homologous recombination is essential for completion of DNA replication and vice versa. This review focuses on the roles that recombination enzymes play in underpinning genome duplication, aiding replication fork movement in the face of the many replisome barriers that challenge genome stability. These links have many conserved features across all domains of life, reflecting the conserved nature of the substrate for these reactions, DNA.Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 10/2014; DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a016550 · 8.23 Impact Factor