Estrogen and brain inflammation: effects on microglial expression of MHC, costimulatory molecules and cytokines.
ABSTRACT To model the effects of estrogen on adaptive immunity in the brain, we examined the effects of 17beta-estradiol on microglial parameters related to antigen presentation and T cell activation. Specifically, the effects of 17beta-estradiol on basal and LPS-induced surface staining of Class I and II MHC, as well as CD40, CD80, CD86, CD152, CD28, CD8, CD11b, Fas, FasL, and also ERalpha and ERbeta, were examined in N9 microglial cells. Additionally, the effects of 17beta-estradiol on basal and LPS-induced release of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-10) were determined. Data indicate that estrogen increases IL-10 while decreasing TNFalpha and IFNgamma release from resting and LPS-stimulated N9 cells. Additionally, LPS-induced surface staining of MHC Class I, CD40, and CD86 was significantly attenuated by estrogen pretreatment. The basal percentage of cells positive for MHC Class I and II, CD40, and CD152, Fas, and FasL was significantly decreased by estrogen exposure. However, CD8, CD86, CD11b, and CD28 were unaffected by estrogen, and CD80 cell surface staining significantly increased following estrogen exposure. Taken together, these data indicate that estrogen can significantly decrease components of adaptive immunity in microglial cells, and highlight the multi-faceted regulatory effects of estrogen on microglial parameters related to antigen presentation and T cell interaction.
SourceAvailable from: Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Potential environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) include viral/bacterial infection and an altered microbiome composition. The present study investigated whether administration of immune and gastrointestinal factors during gestation and early life altered startle response and prepulse inhibition in adolescent offspring using lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial mimetic, and propionic acid (PPA), a short chain fatty acid and metabolic product of antibiotic resistant enteric bacteria. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were injected once a day with PPA (500mg/kg SC) on G12-16, LPS (50μg/kg SC) on G15-16, or vehicle control on G12-16 or G15-16. Male and female offspring were injected with PPA (500mg/kg SC) or vehicle twice a day, every second day from postnatal days 10-18. Acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition were measured on postnatal days 45, 47, 49, and 51. Prenatal and postnatal treatments altered startle behavior in a sex-specific manner. Prenatal LPS treatment produced hyper-sensitivity to acoustic startle in males, but not females and did not alter prepulse inhibition. Subtle alterations in startle responses that disappeared with repeated trials occurred with prenatal PPA and postnatal PPA treatment in both male and female offspring. Prenatal PPA treatment decreased prepulse inhibition in females, but not males. Lastly, females receiving a double hit of PPA, prenatal and postnatal, showed sensitization to acoustic startle, providing evidence for the double hit hypothesis. The current study supports the hypotheses that immune activation and metabolic products of enteric bacteria may alter development and behavior in ways that resemble sensory abnormalities observed in ASD.Behavioural Brain Research 10/2014; 278. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.09.032 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Atherosclerosis, as an inflammatory disease, is characterized by pathologically altered levels of cytokines. We investigated whether smoking and/or oral contraceptives (OCs) affect the CD40/CD40L plasma levels and expression in young females without other risk factors for atherosclerosis. Patients and Methods: A case-control single-center design was used. Expression levels of CD40/CD40L were analyzed in healthy non-pregnant, pre-menopausal, non-smoking women who did not take OCs (n = 49), women who currently smoke and take OCs (n = 40), and women who are only smokers (n = 40) or currently take OCs (n = 42). Results: In OC users, there was a significant increase in CD40 mRNA expression in circulating monocytes as compared with smokers and control group. However, there were no significant differences in CD40 mRNA expression in monocytes between smokers and non-smokers. Interestingly, CD40 mRNA expression in women taking OCs and currently smoking was significantly decreased compared to only OC users (p < 0.001). With regard to plasma CD40 levels there were significant differences between OC-users and control group. However, contrary to our expectations, there were no significant differences in expression levels of CD40L between four groups. In vitro experiments demonstrated enhanced CD40 mRNA and surface expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages stimulated with estrogens. Furthermore, nicotine pretreatment led to a suppression of estrogens stimulated CD40 induction. Conclusions: In young healthy females without additional risk factors for atherosclerosis, OCs, but not smoking, are associated with dramatic changes in CD40 gene and plasma levels. These findings may be providing an important link between OCs and enhancement of pro-inflammatory and atherothrombotic conditions in healthy women.Thrombosis Research 12/2014; 135(2). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2014.11.035 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent results from laboratory investigations and clinical trials indicate important roles for estrogen receptor (ER) agonists in protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from noxious consequences of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative processes in several CNS disorders including spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with activation of microglia and astrocytes, which drive the resident neuroinflammatory response. During neurodegenerative processes, activated microglia and astrocytes cause deleterious effects on surrounding neurons. The inhibitory activity of ER agonists on microglia activation might be a beneficial therapeutic option for delaying the onset or progression of neurodegenerative injuries and diseases. Recent studies suggest that ER agonists can provide neuroprotection by modulation of cell survival mechanisms, synaptic reorganization, regenerative responses to axonal injury, and neurogenesis process. The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of ER agonists are mediated mainly via two ERs known as ERα and ERβ. Although some studies have suggested that ER agonists may be deleterious to some neuronal populations, the potential clinical benefits of ER agonists for augmenting cognitive function may triumph over the associated side effects. Also, understanding the modulatory activities of ER agonists on inflammatory pathways will possibly lead to the development of selective anti-inflammatory molecules with neuroprotective roles in different CNS disorders such as SCI, MS, PD, and AD in humans. Future studies should be concentrated on finding the most plausible molecular pathways for enhancing protective functions of ER agonists in treating neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative injuries and diseases in the CNS.Brain Research Bulletin 09/2014; 109. DOI:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2014.09.004 · 2.97 Impact Factor