College-age young women frequently experience a variety of menstrual-related complaints, including dysmenorrheal, menorrhagia, irregular menses, and menstrual-related mood changes. These problems deserve careful evaluation; they may reflect normal ovulatory menstrual symptoms or be suggestive of significant pathology that can have a major impact on future reproductive and general health. The menstrual cycle is a vital sign whose normalcy suggests an overall good health and whose abnormality requires evaluation. Eating disorders and the female athlete triad increase the risk of osteoporosis; polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with future cardiovascular risks. Diagnosis and management of these problems will not only improve a young woman's current health, sense of well-being, and overall quality of life but may also lower her risks for future disease and ill-health. This article addresses normal menstrual function, excessive bleeding, infrequent or absent menses, pain with menses, menstrual-related mood disorders, and recommendations about routine gynecologic examinations and evaluation.
"These studies mostly involve retrospective chart reviews of inpatients with acute menorrhagia or referrals to hemophilia treatment centers. Data on the frequency and etiology of menorrhagia in university students are scarce, despite gynecological complaints are common in this age group   . The pictorial blood-loss assessment chart (PBAC) is a practical and objective method that has a high sensitivity and specificity when >100 score is accepted to define menorrhagia  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Study objective:
Menorrhagia is an important health problem in women of reproductive age. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of menorrhagia and hemostatic abnormalities associated with menorrhagia in university students.
The pictorial blood assessment chart (PBAC) was used to identify students with menorrhagia. Those with a PBAC score > 100 were examined by pelvic ultrasound and laboratory tests including complete blood count, levels of clotting factors, von Willebrand factor antigen, and ristocetin cofactor activity and Platelet Function Analyser-100 (PFA-100). Platelet aggregation was studied in students with prolonged PFA-100 closure time.
Menorrhagia was identified in 82 (21.8%) of 376 students. Six of 82 students who had pelvic pathologies were excluded. Eleven (14.5%) of the remaining 76 students were found to have bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease in five (6.5%), platelet function disorder in four (5.2%), and clotting factor deficiencies in two (2.6%).
Menorrhagia is a common but mostly unrecognized and untreated problem among university students. Underlying bleeding disorders are not rare and require comprehensive hemostatic evaluation for identification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Almost 3 million high school girls are currently competing in sports, and female participation in collegiate athletics has risen over 137%. Fierce competition in some sports is potentially dangerous for adolescent girls who are especially vulnerable to an obsession with thinness. The Female Athlete Triad (FAT) consists of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Coaches, athletic trainers and other health professionals should gain an understanding of FAT in order to adequately care for the well-being of female athletes.
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