Menstrual disorders in the college age female.

Division of Adolescent Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, ML 4000, Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA.
Pediatric Clinics of North America (Impact Factor: 2.2). 03/2005; 52(1):179-97, ix-x. DOI: 10.1016/j.pcl.2004.10.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT College-age young women frequently experience a variety of menstrual-related complaints, including dysmenorrheal, menorrhagia, irregular menses, and menstrual-related mood changes. These problems deserve careful evaluation; they may reflect normal ovulatory menstrual symptoms or be suggestive of significant pathology that can have a major impact on future reproductive and general health. The menstrual cycle is a vital sign whose normalcy suggests an overall good health and whose abnormality requires evaluation. Eating disorders and the female athlete triad increase the risk of osteoporosis; polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with future cardiovascular risks. Diagnosis and management of these problems will not only improve a young woman's current health, sense of well-being, and overall quality of life but may also lower her risks for future disease and ill-health. This article addresses normal menstrual function, excessive bleeding, infrequent or absent menses, pain with menses, menstrual-related mood disorders, and recommendations about routine gynecologic examinations and evaluation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effect of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on menstrual function is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether changes in menstrual function occur in the year before IBD diagnosis or in the initial years after diagnosis. Women aged 18 years and older in the Ocean State Crohn's and Colitis Area Registry with at least 2 years of follow-up were eligible for this study. All patients were enrolled within 6 months of IBD diagnosis and followed prospectively. Menstrual cycle characteristics were retrospectively assessed. To assess for changes over time, general linear models for correlated data were used for continuous outcomes, and generalized estimating equations were used for discrete outcomes. One hundred twenty-one patients were studied. Twenty-five percent of patients experienced a change in cycle interval in the year before IBD diagnosis and 21% experienced a change in the duration of flow. Among women with dysmenorrhea, 40% experienced a change in the intensity of their menstrual pain and 31% experienced a change in its duration. Overall cycle regularity increased over time. Quality of life was significantly lower in women without regular cycles across all time points. Changes in menstrual function occur frequently in the year before IBD diagnosis; therefore, screening for menstrual irregularities should be considered in women with newly diagnosed IBD. Patients can be reassured that cycles typically become more regular over time.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2014; DOI:10.1097/ · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Study Objective: Menorrhagia is an important health problem in women of reproductive age. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of menorrhagia and hemostatic abnormalities associated with menorrhagia in university students. Methods: The pictorial blood assessment chart (PBAC) was used to identify students with menorrhagia. Those with a PBAC score > 100 were examined by pelvic ultrasound and laboratory tests including complete blood count, levels of clotting factors, von Willebrand factor antigen, and ristocetin cofactor activity and Platelet Function Analyser-100 (PFA-100). Platelet aggregation was studied in students with prolonged PFA-100 closure time. Results: Menorrhagia was identified in 82 (21.8%) of 376 students. Six of 82 students who had pelvic pathologies were excluded. Eleven (14.5%) of the remaining 76 students were found to have bleeding disorders, including von Willebrand disease in five (6.5%), platelet function disorder in four (5.2%), and clotting factor deficiencies in two (2.6%). Conclusions: Menorrhagia is a common but mostly unrecognized and untreated problem among university students. Underlying bleeding disorders are not rare and require comprehensive hemostatic evaluation for identification.
    Pediatric Hematology and Oncology 03/2014; DOI:10.3109/08880018.2014.886316 · 0.96 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Healthcare professionals need updated information about what is the range of "normal" variation of menstrual cycle features to support young girls and their parents in managing reproductive health, and to detect diseases early. This cross-sectional study aimed to provide an updated picture of age at menarche and main menstrual cycle characteristics and complaints in an Italian population-based sample of 3,783 adolescents attending secondary school. Girls filled in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire including questions about demography, anthropometry, smoking and drinking habits, use of contraceptive, socioeconomic status, age at menarche, menstrual pattern, and physical/psychological menstrual complaints. Mean age at menarche and prevalence of polymenorrhea (cycle length < 21 days), oligomenorrhea (cycle length > 35 days), irregularity, dysmenorrhea, and of physical/psychological complaints were computed. Factors associated with age at menarche and menstrual disturbances were explored by using multiple logistic models. The girls' mean age was 17.1 years (SD 1.4 years) and the mean age at menarche was 12.4 years (SD 1.3 years); menarche occurred with two monthly peaks of frequency in July-September and in December-January (P < 0.0001). Age at menarche was significantly associated with geographic genetics (as expressed by parents' birth area), mother's menarcheal age, BMI, family size, and age at data collection. The prevalence of polymenorrhea was about 2.5%, oligomenorrhea was declared by 3.7%, irregular length by 8.3%, while long bleeding (>6 days) was shown in 19.6% of girls. Gynecological age was significantly associated with cycle length (P < 0.0001) with long cycles becoming more regular within the fourth year after menarche, while frequency of polymenorrhea stabilized after the second gynecological year. Oligomenorrhea and irregularity were both significantly associated with long menstrual bleeding (adjusted OR = 2.36; 95% CI = 1.55-3.60, and adjusted OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.95-3.44, respectively). The findings of the study support the levelling-off of secular trend in menarche anticipation in Italy and confirm the timing in menstrual cycle regularization. The study provides updated epidemiological data on frequency of menstrual abnormalities to help reproductive health professionals in managing adolescent gynecology.
    11/2014; DOI:10.4103/2230-8210.140251