ACTH-induced caveolin-1 tyrosine phosphorylation is related to podosome assembly in Y1 adrenal cells.
ABSTRACT Y1 adrenocortical cells respond to ACTH with a characteristic rounding-up that facilitates cAMP signaling, critical for transport of cholesterol to the mitochondria and increase in steroid secretion. We here demonstrate that caveolin-1 participates in coupling activation of protein kinase A (PKA) to the control of cell shape. ACTH/8-Br-cAMP induced reorganization of caveolin-1-positive structures in correlation with the cellular rounding-up. Concomitant with this change, there was an increase in the phosphorylation of caveolin-1 (Tyr-14) localized at focal adhesions (FA) with reorganization of FA to rounded, ringlike structures. Colocalization with phalloidin showed that phosphocaveolin is present at the edge of actin filaments and that after ACTH stimulation F-actin dots at the cell periphery become surrounded by phosphocaveolin-1. These observations along with electron microscopy studies revealed these structures as podosomes. Podosome assembly was dependent on both PKA and tyrosine kinase activities because their formation was impaired after treatment with specific inhibitors [myristoylated PKI (mPKI) or PP2, respectively] previous to ACTH/8-Br-cAMP stimulation. These results show for the first time that ACTH induces caveolin-1 phosphorylation and podosome assembly in Y1 cells and support the view that the morphological and functional responses to PKA activation in steroidogenic cells are related to cytoskeleton dynamics.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the past decade, substantial progress has been made in understanding how Src family kinases regulate the formation and function of invadosomes. Invadosomes are organized actin-rich structures that contain an F-actin core surrounded by an adhesive ring and mediate invasive migration. Src kinases orchestrate, either directly or indirectly, each phase of the invadosome life cycle including invadosome assembly, maturation and matrix degradation and disassembly. Complex arrays of Src effector proteins are involved at different stages of invadosome maturation and their spatiotemporal activity must be tightly regulated to achieve effective invasive migration. In this review, we highlight some recent progress and the challenges of understanding how Src is regulated temporally and spatially to orchestrate the dynamics of invadosomes and mediate cell invasion.European journal of cell biology 07/2012; 91(11-12):878-88. · 3.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the adrenal cortex, the biosynthesis of steroid hormones is controlled by the pituitary-derived hormone ACTH. The functions of ACTH are principally relayed by activating cAMP-dependent signaling pathways leading to the induction of genes encoding enzymes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones. Previously, protein kinase A (PKA) was thought to be the only direct effector of cAMP. However, the discovery of the cAMP sensors, exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (EPAC1 and 2), has led to a reevaluation of this assumption. In the present study, we demonstrate the occurrence of the EPAC2 splicing variant EPAC2B in adrenocortical cancer cells. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that EPAC2B is localized predominantly in the nucleus. EPAC2B is functional because it activates Rap1 in these cells. Using the cAMP analogs 8-p-chlorophenylthio-2'-O-methyl-cAMP and N6-benzoyl-cAMP, which specifically activate EPAC1/2 and PKA, respectively, we evaluated the contribution of these factors in steroid hormone production, cell morphology, actin reorganization, and migration. We demonstrate that the expression of cAMP-inducible factors involved in steroidogenesis (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, cytochrome P450 11A1 and 17, and nerve growth factor-induced clone B) and the cAMP-induced biosynthesis of steroid hormones (cortisol and aldosterone) are mediated by PKA and not by EPAC2B. In contrast, both PKA- and EPAC-specific cAMP analogs induced cell rounding, loss of stress fibers, and blocked migration. Taken together, the presented data confirm PKA as the central cAMP mediator in steroid hormone production and reveal the involvement of EPAC2B in cAMP-induced effects on cytoskeleton integrity and cell migration.Endocrinology 03/2010; 151(5):2151-61. · 4.72 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To perform their functions during development and after central nervous system injury, the brain's immune cells (microglia) must migrate through dense neuropil and extracellular matrix (ECM), but it is not known how they degrade the ECM. In several cancer cell lines and peripheral cells, small multi-molecular complexes (invadopodia in cancer cells, podosomes in nontumor cells) can both adhere to and dissolve the ECM. Podosomes are tiny multi-molecular structures (0.4 to 1 μm) with a core, rich in F-actin and its regulatory molecules, surrounded by a ring containing adhesion and structural proteins. Using rat microglia, we performed several functional assays: live cell imaging for chemokinesis, degradation of the ECM component, fibronectin, and chemotactic invasion through Matrigel™, a basement membrane type of ECM. Fluorescent markers were used with high-resolution microscopy to identify podosomes and their components. The fan-shaped lamella at the leading edge of migrating microglia contained a large F-actin-rich superstructure composed of many tiny (<1 μm) punctae that were adjacent to the substrate, as expected for cell-matrix contact points. This superstructure (which we call a podonut) was restricted to cells with lamellae, and conversely almost every lamella contained a podonut. Each podonut comprised hundreds of podosomes, which could also be seen individually adjacent to the podonut. Microglial podosomes contained hallmark components of these structures previously seen in several cell types: the plaque protein talin in the ring, and F-actin and actin-related protein (Arp) 2 in the core. In microglia, podosomes were also enriched in phosphotyrosine residues and three tyrosine-kinase-regulated proteins: tyrosine kinase substrate with five Src homology 3 domains (Tks5), phosphorylated caveolin-1, and Nox1 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 1). When microglia expressed podonuts, they were able to degrade the ECM components, fibronectin, and Matrigel™. The discovery of functional podosomes in microglia has broad implications, because migration of these innate immune cells is crucial in the developing brain, after damage, and in disease states involving inflammation and matrix remodeling. Based on the roles of invadosomes in peripheral tissues, we propose that microglia use these complex structures to adhere to and degrade the ECM for efficient migration.Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2012; 9:190. · 4.35 Impact Factor