Binding of Porphyromonas gingivalis gingipains to human CD4(+) T cells preferentially down-regulates surface CD2 and CD4 with little affect on co-stimulatory molecule expression.
ABSTRACT The role of Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) in the evasion of host cell-mediated immunity has not been fully determined. In this study, modulation by gingipains of accessory and co-stimulatory molecule expression on human CD4(+) T cells was evaluated. Arg-gingipain rather than Lys-gingipain binds to resting CD4(+) T cells in the presence of serum. The constitutive expression of CD28 on T cells was slightly up-regulated following challenge with gingipains, whereas CD45 and CD3 were not affected. Binding of anti-CD2 and anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was reduced after challenge of T cells with gingipains, but restored to 50 and 100%, respectively, of control levels, after 48h of incubation in medium depleted of gingipains. The induced expression, by anti-CD3 mAb, of CTLA-4, CD25, and CD40 ligand (CD40L) was decreased following incubation of T cells with gingipains which also led to decreased response to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 mAbs as shown by reduction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cumulatively, these results indicate that activated gingipains attach to T cells and preferentially cleave CD2 and CD4 molecules, with potential to impair T cell responses at periodontal sites.
Article: Blockade of protease-activated receptors on T cells correlates with altered proteolysis of CD27 by gingipains of Porphyromonas gingivalis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cysteine proteinases, termed gingipains, of Porphyromonas gingivalis are able to inactivate a broad range of host proteins involved in cellular responses and have been implicated as key virulence factors in the onset and progression of adult periodontitis. In the present study, the high molecular weight Arg-gingipain, RgpA, produced a time- and concentration-dependent hydrolysis of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha receptor family member CD27 on resting T cells. As a consequence of CD27 degradation, a reduction in CD27-ligation dependent co-stimulatory CD40L expression was observed. Concomitantly, RgpA activated the protease-activated receptors (PAR)-1, PAR-2 and PAR-4 and induced CD69 and CD25 expression on T cells, thereby demonstrating T cell activation. The Lys-gingipain Kgp demonstrated a low capacity to degrade CD27 but the ability to affect CD27 expression and biological activity was increased when T cells were pretreated with blocking peptide against PAR-2. CD70, the ligand for CD27 induced on activated B cells, was significantly reduced by RgpA treatment and weakly affected by Kgp. These findings suggest that while RgpA can activate T cells through PARs, the parallel action of direct hydrolysis of membrane CD27 as well as CD70 indicates a potential down-regulatory effect through inhibition of CD27/CD70-mediated cell activation in periodontitis.Clinical & Experimental Immunology 12/2007; 150(2):217-29. · 3.36 Impact Factor
Article: Alzheimer's Disease: APP, Gamma Secretase, APOE, CLU, CR1, PICALM, ABCA7, BIN1, CD2AP, CD33, EPHA1, and MS4A2, and Their Relationships with Herpes Simplex, C. Pneumoniae, Other Suspect Pathogens, and the Immune System.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease susceptibility genes, APP and gamma-secretase, are involved in the herpes simplex life cycle, and that of other suspect pathogens (C. pneumoniae, H. pylori, C. neoformans, B. burgdorferri, P. gingivalis) or immune defence. Such pathogens promote beta-amyloid deposition and tau phosphorylation and may thus be causative agents, whose effects are conditioned by genes. The antimicrobial effects of beta-amyloid, the localisation of APP/gamma-secretase in immunocompetent dendritic cells, and gamma secretase cleavage of numerous pathogen receptors suggest that this network is concerned with pathogen disposal, effects which may be abrogated by the presence of beta-amyloid autoantibodies in the elderly. These autoantibodies, as well as those to nerve growth factor and tau, also observed in Alzheimer's disease, may well be antibodies to pathogens, due to homology between human autoantigens and pathogen proteins. NGF or tau antibodies promote beta-amyloid deposition, neurofibrillary tangles, or cholinergic neuronal loss, and, with other autoantibodies, such as anti-ATPase, are potential agents of destruction, whose formation is dictated by sequence homology between pathogen and human proteins, and thus by pathogen strain and human genes. Pathogen elimination in the ageing population and removal of culpable autoantibodies might reduce the incidence and offer hope for a cure in this affliction.International journal of Alzheimer's disease. 01/2011; 2011:501862.
Article: Dichotomy of gingipains action as virulence factors: from cleaving substrates with the precision of a surgeon's knife to a meat chopper-like brutal degradation of proteins.Periodontology 2000 10/2010; 54(1):15-44. · 3.96 Impact Factor