[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel function for the binder of Arl two (BART) molecule in pancreatic cancer cells is reported. BART inhibits invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells through binding to a Ca(2+)-dependent, phosphorylated, guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) membrane fusion protein, annexin7 (ANX7). A tumor suppressor function for ANX7 was previously reported based on its prognostic role in human cancers and the cancer-prone mouse phenotype ANX7(+/-). Further investigation demonstrated that the BART-ANX7 complex is transported toward cell protrusions in migrating cells when BART supports the binding of ANX7 to the protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCα. Recent evidence has suggested that phosphorylation of ANX7 by PKC significantly potentiates ANX7-induced fusion of phospholipid vesicles; however, the current data suggest that the BART-ANX7 complex reduces PKCα activity. Knocking down endogenous BART and ANX7 increases activity of PKCα, and specific inhibitors of PKCα significantly abrogate invasiveness induced by BART and ANX7 knockdown. These results imply that BART contributes to regulating PKCα activity through binding to ANX7, thereby affecting the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, it is possible that BART and ANX7 can distinctly regulate the downstream signaling of PKCα that is potentially relevant to cell invasion by acting as anti-invasive molecules.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35674. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report that Binder of Arl Two (BART) plays a role in inhibiting cell invasion by regulating the activity of the Rho small guanosine triphosphatase protein Rac1 in pancreatic cancer cells. BART was originally identified as a binding partner of ADP-ribosylation factor-like 2, a small G protein implicated as a regulator of microtubule dynamics and folding. BART interacts with active forms of Rac1, and the BART-Rac1 complex localizes at the leading edges of migrating cancer cells. Suppression of BART increases active Rac1, thereby increasing cell invasion. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells in which BART is stably knocked down with a Rac1 inhibitor decreases invasiveness. Thus, BART-dependent inhibition of cell invasion is likely associated with decreased active Rac1. Suppression of BART induces membrane ruffling and lamellipodial protrusion and increases peripheral actin structures in membrane ruffles at the edges of lamellipodia. The Rac1 inhibitor inhibits the lamellipodia formation that is stimulated by suppression of BART. Our results imply that BART regulates actin-cytoskeleton rearrangements at membrane ruffles through modulation of the activity of Rac1, which, in turn, inhibits pancreatic cancer cell invasion.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.) 05/2012; 14(5):440-50. · 5.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Semaphorin signaling through Plexin frequently participates in tumorigenesis and malignant progression in various types of cancer. In particular, the role of semaphorin signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unexplored, despite a high likelihood of metastasis and mortality. Unlike other epithelial malignancies that often express a small number of specific genes in the Semaphorin/Plexin family, five or more are often expressed in human PDAC. Such concomitant expression of these SEMA3/Plexin family members is not a result of gene amplification, but (at least partially) from increased gene transcription activated by SOX4 de novo expressed in PDAC. Via chromatin-immunoprecipitation, luciferase promoter activity assay and electrophoresis mobility shift assay, SOX4 is demonstrated to bind to the consensus site at the promoter of each SEMA3 and Plexin gene to enhance transcription activity. Conversely, RNAi-knockdown of SOX4 in PDAC cell lines results in decreased expression of SEMA3/Plexin family members and is associated with restricted tumor growth both in vitro and in SCID mice. We further demonstrate that SOX4 levels parallel with the summed expression of SEMA3/Plexin family members (P = 0.033, NPar Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis), which also correlates with poor survival in human PDAC (P = 0.0409, Kaplan-Meier analysis). Intriguingly, miR-129-2 and miR-335, both of which target SOX4 for degradation, are co-repressed in human PDAC cases associated with up-regulated SOX4 in a statistically significant way. In conclusion, we disclose a miR-129-2(miR-335)/SOX4/Semaphorin-Plexin regulatory axis in the tumorigenesis of pancreatic cancer.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e48637. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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