Mucin-depleted foci have beta-catenin gene mutations, altered expression of its protein, and are dose- and time-dependent in the colon of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Florence, Firenze, Italy.
International Journal of Cancer (Impact Factor: 6.2). 09/2005; 116(1):9-15. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.20981
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are purported preneoplastic lesions that can be easily visualized in the unsectioned colon of carcinogen-treated rats stained with high-iron diamine alcian blue (HID-AB). In F344 rats treated twice with 150 mg/kg of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and sacrificed after 5, 9, 13 and 28 weeks, MDF increased over time from 5 to 13 weeks, whereas they decreased at 28 weeks, when tumors appear. MDF multiplicity (crypts/MDF) linearly increased with time. Increasing doses of DMH (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg x 2 times) caused a dose-related increase in MDF. Mutations in Ctnnb1 gene codifying for beta-catenin were identified with PCR amplification and direct sequencing in 6/15 tumors (40%), 7/28 MDF (25%) and 2/27 (7%) aberrant crypt foci (ACF) identified in HID-AB-stained colon. All mutations in tumors and MDF caused amino acid substitution, while one mutation in ACF was silent. Beta-catenin detected at membrane level by immunohistochemistry was markedly reduced in MDF and tumors and, to a lesser extent, in ACF identified with HID-AB. By contrast, nuclear localization of beta-catenin was significantly increased in MDF and tumors, while no variation was observed in ACF. Beta-catenin cytoplasmic expression was also significantly increased in MDF and tumors but to a lesser extent in ACF. In conclusion, MDF are induced dose-dependently by DMH, increase in size with time, have mutations in the beta-catenin gene and marked alterations in beta-catenin cellular localization. Since all these phenomena are considered specific steps for colon tumorigenesis, these results further support the hypothesis that MDF are cancer precursors and can be proposed as endpoints in short-term carcinogenesis experiments.

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    ABSTRACT: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) with the food supplement material and medicine was used traditionally in Asia and Europe. Epidemiological studies revealed that the intake of garlic reduced incidences of various cancer including digestive system. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of garlic ethanol extract on the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male F344 rats. Five-week-old rats were given four times for two weeks to subcutaneous injections by DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) to induce ACF. The animals were divided into groups that fed diet containing garlic ethanol extract at five different doses (0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 2, 5%), respectively, animals were evaluated for the total number of ACF and total aberrant crypts (AC) per colon detected from methylene blue-stained rat colon. ACF were formed in animals in DMH-treated group. The feeding suppressed potently the appearance ACF in the colon of rats. Especially, fed diet containing garlic ethanol extract at intermediate dose (0.5%) significantly reduced the number of ACF and AC per colon (p < 0.05). Garlic ethanol extract inhibited DMH-induced overexpression of Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) and genes related to cell proliferation that also upregulated the expression of p21Waf1/Cip1 mRNA, a cell cycle-regulating gene. These results suggested that garlic ethanol extract may inhibit ACF formation, gene as the early preneoplastic marker of malignant potential in the process of colon carcinogenesis.
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    ABSTRACT: Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist Copyright: 2013Mohania D et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited Abstract This study evaluated the chemopreventive effects of probiotic LaLp Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus
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    ABSTRACT: The animal model is a powerful and fundamental tool in the field of biochemical research including toxicology, carcinogenesis, cancer therapeutics and prevention. In the carcinogenesis animal model system, numerous examples of preneoplastic lesions have been isolated and investigated from various perspectives. This may indicate that several options of endpoints to evaluate carcinogenesis effect or therapeutic outcome are presently available; however, classification of preneoplastic lesions has become complicated. For instance, these lesions include aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF, flat ACF, β-catenin accumulated crypts, and mucin-depleted foci. These lesions have been induced by commonly used chemical carcinogens such as azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), methylnitrosourea (MUN), or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Investigators can choose any procedures or methods to examine colonic preneoplastic lesions according to their interests and the objectives of their experiments. Based on topographical, histopathological, and biological features of colon cancer preneoplastic lesions in the animal model, we summarize and discuss the character and implications of these lesions.
    Journal of Toxicologic Pathology 12/2013; 26(4):335-341. · 0.34 Impact Factor

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