Growth hormone at breeding modifies conceptus development and postnatal growth in sheep.
ABSTRACT Experiments were performed to determine the effects of components of the GH-IGF axis on conceptus development and postnatal growth in sheep. In Exp. 1, ewes received one of the following treatments: 1) sustained release GH at breeding, 2) sustained release GH at breeding and estradiol-17beta at d 5 and 6, 3) only estradiol-17beta at d 5 and 6, or 4) no treatment. Uteri were flushed on d 7, and flushings were analyzed for content of IGF-I. A single injection of sustained-release bovine GH at breeding increased IGF-I content in uterine luminal flushings compared with control ewes (P < 0.05). Treatment with estradiol-17beta on d 5 and 6 after breeding did not alter IGF-I content compared with control ewes, and it blocked the effect of GH on uterine luminal IGF-I content. In Exp. 2, sustained release GH or no treatment was administered at breeding, and gravid uteri were collected at d 25, 80, or 140 of gestation. On d 80, GH-treated ewes had smaller chorioallantoic weights (P < 0.05) and tended to have more efficient placentae (fetal weight/total placental weight; P = 0.052), with a higher percentage of placental weight as cotyledons (P = 0.068) compared with control ewes. In Exp. 3, ewes were treated with or without sustained release GH at progesterone withdrawal. Lambs from GH-treated ewes were heavier at birth (P < 0.05). Lambs from GH-treated ewes reared as singles, but not lambs reared as multiples, were heavier at 30, 60 (P < 0.05), and 75 d (P = 0.075) of age than lambs from control ewes. In conclusion, ewes treated with sustained-release GH at breeding developed smaller, more efficient placentas, and had larger lambs at birth.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives were to examine effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on placental size at term and maternal endocrine profiles throughout gestation and early lactation. Ewe lambs (n = 84) were allocated to treatments that included Se supply of adequate Se (ASe; 11.5 μg/kg BW) or high Se (HSe; 77 μg/kg BW) initiated at breeding and nutritional plane of 60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements beginning on day 40 of gestation. At parturition, lambs were removed from their dams, and ewes were transitioned to a common diet that met requirements of lactation. Blood samples were taken from a subset of ewes (n = 42) throughout gestation, during parturition, and throughout lactation to determine hormone concentrations. Cotyledon number was reduced (P = 0.03) in RES and EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. Placental delivery time tended (P = 0.08) to be shorter in HSe ewes than in ASe ewes, whereas placental delivery time was longer (P = 0.02) in RES ewes than in CON and EXC ewes. During gestation, maternal progesterone, estradiol-17β, and GH were increased (P < 0.05) in RES ewes and decreased (P < 0.05) in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes. In contrast, maternal cortisol, IGF-I, prolactin, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were decreased in RES ewes and increased in EXC ewes compared with CON ewes during gestation. Selenium supply did not alter maternal hormone profiles during gestation. During parturition and lactation, maternal hormone concentrations were influenced by both Se and maternal nutritional plane. During the parturient process, HSe ewes tended to have greater (P = 0.06) concentrations of estradiol-17β than ASe ewes. Three hours after parturition a surge of GH was observed in ASe-RES ewes that was muted in HSe-RES ewes and not apparent in other ewes. Growth hormone area under the curve during the parturient process was increased (P < 0.05) in ASe-RES vs HSe-RES ewes. Ewes that were overfed during gestation had reduced (P < 0.05) estradiol-17β but greater IGF-I, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine (P < 0.05) compared with RES ewes. Even though ewes were transitioned to a common diet after parturition, endocrine status continued to be affected into lactation. Moreover, it appears that gestational diet may partially affect lactational performance through altered endocrine status.Domestic Animal Endocrinology 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.domaniend.2013.09.006 · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.The Journal of Physiology 10/2010; 589(Pt 1):7-20. DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198622 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P < 0.05), but not in dairy heifers or beef cows. Conception rates did not differ in dairy cows at < or =100 days in milk (DIM), but were improved in cows treated with rbST after 100 DIM (64.3% versus 25.8%; P < 0.05). Retention of pregnancy to approximately 60 days and sizes of CL, diameter of follicles > or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.Animal Reproduction Science 07/2006; 93(3-4):349-59. DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2005.08.010 · 1.58 Impact Factor