Current Status of Vitamin E Nutriture
ABSTRACT Vitamin E intake status requires reassessment because the recommended levels have been increased and take into account only the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E. A database of alpha-tocopherol values for more than 7,000 foods was developed and applied to dietary data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2000. Usual intake distributions were determined and evaluated for adequacy. Ninety percent or more of the adults studied had their usual intakes below the current Estimated Average Requirement. Several observations-the prevalence of inadequate intakes of vitamin E, absence of signs of deficiency in the U.S. population, and increasing evidence that vitamin E helps reduce chronic disease risk-point to a need for further research.
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ABSTRACT: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are the most recent set of nutrient-based reference standards, which, together with recommended dietary assessment methods, are used to update estimates of nutrient adequacy for population subgroups. Recent estimates suggest both dietary deficiencies and excesses for selected nutrients among some subgroups. This report takes a critical look at the methods used to set DRIs for energy and six nutrientsâ€”zinc, vitamin A, magnesium, vitamin E, fiber, and potassium. It suggests that errors in dietary recall data may partially explain the deficiencies and excessive intakes. In addition, DRIs for selected nutrients may be based on less than optimal data. Because food and nutrition assistance programs use DRIs to set nutritional objectives, establish benefits, and evaluate outcomes, it is important to understand the issues involved in deriving the DRIs and how to interpret the results of dietary assessments.
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ABSTRACT: African Americans in the southern United States have a high prevalence of chronic disease. Tocopherol intake and status have been associated with protection against several chronic diseases. Our objectives were, therefore, to examine the association between tocopherol intakes as measured by 2 regional FFQ and their corresponding concentrations in serum and to report on dietary sources of tocopherols in 404 men and women participating in the cross-sectional Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study of the Jackson Heart Study. A large proportion (49% of men and 66% of women) reported dietary supplement use. Only 5.8% of men and 4.5% of women met the estimated average requirement (EAR) for vitamin E from foods alone, whereas 44.2% men and 49.2% women met it from foods and supplements. Total (diet 1 supplement) intake of a-tocopherol was associated with its corresponding measure in serum. Vitamin E supplement use, sex, serum cholesterol, education, and BMI, but not g-tocopherol intakes, were associated with serum g-tocopherol. For d-tocopherol, associated variables included sex and serum cholesterol. The top food sources of a- and g-tocopherol were snack chips and the top food source of d-tocopherol was margarine. Despite prevalent vitamin E supplement use, more than one-half of this population did not meet the EAR for a-tocopherol intake and very few met it from food alone. Supplement use was associated with higher a- but lower g-tocopherol concentration in serum. The possible health implications of this difference in relative tocopherol subtypes require further study. J. Nutr. 137: 2297-2303, 2007.