Akt2 phosphorylates Synip to regulate docking and fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles

Department of Medicine and Molecular Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511, Japan.
The Journal of Cell Biology (Impact Factor: 9.69). 04/2005; 168(6):921-8. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200408182
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We have identified an unusual potential dual Akt/protein kinase B consensus phosphorylation motif in the protein Synip (RxKxRS(97)xS(99)). Surprisingly, serine 97 is not appreciably phosphorylated, whereas serine 99 is only a specific substrate for Akt2 but not Akt1 or Akt3. Although wild-type Synip (WT-Synip) undergoes an insulin-stimulated dissociation from Syntaxin4, the Synip serine 99 to phenylalanine mutant (S99F-Synip) is resistant to Akt2 phosphorylation and fails to display insulin-stimulated Syntaxin4 dissociation. Furthermore, overexpression of WT-Synip in 3T3L1 adipocytes had no effect on insulin-stimulated recruitment of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane, whereas overexpression of S99F-Synip functioned in a dominant-interfering manner by preventing insulin-stimulated GLUT4 recruitment and plasma membrane fusion. These data demonstrate that insulin activation of Akt2 specifically regulates the docking/fusion step of GLUT4-containing vesicles at the plasma membrane through the regulation of Synip phosphorylation and Synip-Syntaxin4 interaction.

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    ABSTRACT: Insulin triggers glucose uptake into skeletal muscle and adipose tissues by gaining the available number of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) on the cell surface. GLUT4-loaded vesicles are targeted to plasma membrane from the intracellular reservoir through multiple trafficking and fusion processes that are mainly regulated by Akt. However, it is still largely unknown how GLUT4 expression in the cell surface is promoted by insulin. In the present study, we identified tomosyn at Ser-783 as a possible Akt-substrate motif and examined whether the phosphorylation at Ser-783 is involved in the regulation of GLUT4 expression. Both Akt1 and Akt2 phosphorylated the wild-type tomosyn, but not the mutant tomosyn in which Ser-783 was replaced with Ala. Phosphorylation of tomosyn at Ser-783 was also observed in the intact cells by insulin stimulation, which was blocked by PI3K inhibitor, LY294002. In Vitro pull-down assay showed that phosphorylation of tomosyn at Ser-783 by Akt inhibited the interaction with syntaxin 4. Insulin stimulation increased GLUT4 in the cell surface of CHO-K1 cells to promote glucose uptake, however exogenous expression of the mutant tomosyn attenuated the increase by insulin. These results suggest that Ser-783 of tomosyn is a target of Akt and is implicated in the interaction with syntaxin 4. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 02/2015; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2015.02.013 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PKC βII is alternatively spliced during acute insulin stimulation in L6 skeletal muscle cells. This PKC βII isoform is critical in propagating GLUT4 translocation. PKC β protein and promoter dysfunction correlate with human insulin resistance. TZD treatment ameliorates whole-body insulin-resistance. Its primary target is adipocyte PPAR γ, which it activates upon binding. This causes both altered circulating serum FFA concentrations and adipokine secretion profile. How TZDs affect the intracellular signaling of skeletal muscle cells is unknown. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed that TZDs elevated PKC βII by a process that involves co-transcriptional splicing. PGC1 α overexpression most closely resembled TZD treatment by increasing PKCβII protein levels and keeping PKC βI levels relatively constant. Use of a heterologous PKCβ promoter driven PKC β minigene demonstrated that PPARγ could regulate the PKCβ promoter, but whether this is direct or indirect is unclear. SRp40 splicing factor has been shown to dock onto the PGC1 α CTD and influence splicing. SRp40, through overexpression and silencing, appears to play a part in PKC β promoter regulation. PKC β promoter regulation was also studied in 3T3-L1 cells. TZDs were experimentally shown to have no role in PKC β promoter regulation despite PPARγ activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed PU.1 as a putative PKC β transcription factor that can cross-talk with the spliceosome, possibly through SRp40 which was also associated with the PKC β promoter. 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation revealed a novel developmentally-regulated switch from PKC βI to PKCβ II, using western blot and Real-Time PCR analysis. Pharmacological inhibition of PKC β II using CGP53353 and LY379196 blocked [ 3 H]2-deoxyglucose uptake and revealed a functional role for PKC β II in adipocyte ISGT. CGP53353 specifically inhibited phosphorylation of PKC β II Serine 660 and not other critical upstream components of the insulin signaling pathway. Subcellular fractionation and PM sheet assay pointed to PKC β II-mediated regulation of GLUT4 translocation to the PM. Co-immunoprecipitation between PKC β II and GLUT4 allude to possible direct interaction. Western blot and immunofluorescence assays show PKC β II activity is linked with Akt Serine 473 phosphorylation, thus full Akt activity. Western blot and co-immunoprecipitation suggested that insulin caused active mTORC2 to directly activate PKC βII. Data support a model whereby PKCβ II is downstream of mTORC2 yet upstream of Akt, thereby regulating GLUT4 translocation.

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