[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) is valuable for detection and characterization of many inflammatory conditions of the colon. At CT, a dilated, thickened appendix is suggestive of appendicitis. A 1-4-cm, oval, fatty pericolic lesion with surrounding mesenteric inflammation is diagnostic of epiploic appendagitis. The key to distinguishing diverticulitis from other inflammatory conditions of the colon is the presence of diverticula in the involved segment. In typhlitis, CT demonstrates cecal distention and circumferential thickening of the cecal wall, which may have low attenuation secondary to edema. In radiation colitis, the clinical history is the key to suggesting the diagnosis because the CT findings can be nonspecific. The location of the involved segment and the extent and appearance of wall thickening may help distinguish Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. In ischemic colitis, CT typically demonstrates circumferential, symmetric wall thickening with fold enlargement. CT findings of graft-versus-host disease include small bowel and colonic wall thickening, which may result in luminal narrowing and separation of bowel loops. In infectious colitis, the site and thickness of colon affected may suggest a specific organism. The amount of wall thickening in pseudomembranous colitis is typically greater than in any other inflammatory disease of the colon except Crohn disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urachal cancers are uncommon malignancies with a location that often permits considerable local extension before they are discovered. The most common histological type is adenocarcinoma, which may produce mucus that is a valuable aid in diagnosis. The presence of stippled calcification in a midline abdominal wall mass is almost pathognomonic for urachal carcinoma. More commonly, however, the symptoms are less specific, such as hematuria and an abdominal mass. Many lesions are visible endoscopically and, thus, the diagnosis can be made preoperatively from a biopsy. Most treatment failures occur because the tumor is not controlled locally by the initial operation and, therefore, we recommend en bloc cystectomy with umbilectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy unless the tumor is known to be a sarcoma or early stage (I) carcinoma. If these patients are undertreated and there is a local recurrence then the patient usually is not salvageable. Because of the difficulty in identifying the origin of a bladder adenocarcinoma, any tumor on the dome or anterior wall should be approached initially as if it were a urachal tumor.
The Journal of Urology 02/1984; 131(1):1-8. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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