What is the accuracy of clinic blood pressure measurement?
ABSTRACT In clinical practice, blood pressure (BP) is frequently measured at the end of the visit in patients sitting on one side of the bed and not on a chair according to guidelines.
In 540 consecutive subjects with essential hypertension (EH) attending a hospital outpatient clinic, BP was measured in the following sequence: 1) patient seated on chair for at least 5 min, 2) patient supine, 3) patient seated on bed, and 4) patient standing for a few minutes.
We found that mean (+/-SEM) BP was 143.5/87.2 +/- 0.9/0.5, 153.4/89.7 +/- 1.0/0.5, 148.9/90.9 +/- 1.0/0.5, and 144.8/91.7 +/- 1.0/0.6 mm Hg, respectively (P < .05 v position 1 for all). In 14% of patients, either systolic BP (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) was above the conventional upper limits of normality in the seated-on-bed but not in the recommended seated-on-chair position ("false" high clinic BP), whereas SBP and DBP were "false" normal (below limit for bed-seated and above limit for chair-seated position) in only 6% and 2% of patients, respectively. Overall, SBP and DBP increments from the chair- to the bed-seated position were inversely related to the baseline chair-seated values; systolic increments were directly related to age, in particular in the subgroup of untreated EH (n = 70), and to body mass index. A gender-related difference was apparent, as female subjects had more pronounced increments in SBP (+7.4 +/- 0.8 v +3.5 +/- 0.7 mm Hg) and DBP (+4.4 +/- 0.5 v 2.9 +/- 0.4 mm Hg) than did male subjects (P < .05 for both).
Clinic SBP and DBP are overestimated in the bed-seated position at the end of the visit compared with the recommended chair-seated position in treated and untreated patients with EH, in particular in elderly obese women with mild hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: Accurate automatic noninvasive assessment of blood pressure (BP) presents a challenge due to conditions like arrhythmias, obesity, and postural changes that tend to obfuscate arterial amplitude pulsations sensed by the cuff. Researchers tried to overcome this challenge by analyzing oscillometric pulses with the aid of a higher fidelity signal-the electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, pulse transit time (PTT) was employed to provide an additional method for BP estimation. However, these methods were not fully developed, suitably integrated, or tested. To address these issues, we present a novel method whereby ECG-assisted oscillometric and PTT (measured between ECG R-peaks and maximum slope of arterial pulse peaks) analyses are seamlessly integrated into the oscillometric BP measurement paradigm. The method bolsters oscillometric analysis (amplitude modulation) with more reliable ECG R-peaks provides a complementary measure with PTT analysis (temporal modulation) and fuses this information for robust BP estimation. We have integrated this technology into a prototype that comprises a BP cuff with an embedded conductive fabric ECG electrode, associated hardware, and algorithms. A pilot study has been undertaken on ten healthy subjects (150 recordings) to validate the performance of our prototype against United States Food and Drug Administration approved Omron oscillometric monitor (HEM-790IT). Our prototype achieves mean absolute difference of less than 5 mmHg and grade A as per the British Hypertension Society protocol for estimating BP, with the reference Omron monitor.IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering 03/2012; 59(3):608-18. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The epidemiology of blood pressure in very old age has not been thoroughly studied. The objective of this study was to study blood pressure changes throughout old age and changes in blood pressure and antihypertensive drug use from 1981 to 2005. The study includes 1133 blood pressure measurements from two studies carried out in Umeå, Sweden. The U70 study (1981-1990) included individuals aged 70-88 and the Umeå 85+/GERDA study (2000-2005) covered people aged 85, 90 or 95 years. The impact of age, sex and year of investigation on blood pressure was investigated using linear regression. Mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) decreased by 0.35 mm Hg (P<0.001) for each year of age. An inverted U-shaped relation was found between age and systolic blood pressure (SBP), with SBP reaching its maximum at 74.5 years. Mean SBP and DBP also decreased over time (SBP by 0.44 mm Hg per year, P<0.001 and DBP by 0.34 mm Hg per year, P<0.001). The proportion of participants on antihypertensive drugs increased from 39.0% in 1981 to 69.4% in 2005. In this study of people aged 70 years, mean SBP and DBP decreased with higher age and later investigation year. Antihypertensive drug use increased with time, which might partly explain the observed cohort effect.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 19 April 2012; doi:10.1038/jhh.2012.14.Journal of human hypertension 04/2012; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a prototype of an integrated blood pressure (BP) and electrocardiogram (ECG) device for multi-parameter physiologic monitoring. A standard BP pressure cuff and an ordinary wristband have been modified to incorporate in them dry ECG electrodes made of thin conductive fabric. The modified BP cuff and wristband are coupled with commercially available hardware and software to harvest simultaneous arterial pulse wave and ECG data from the arm and wrist of the other hand. Software has been written for assessing multiple physiologic parameters from the harvested pulse wave and ECG signals. We provide an initial validation of the performance of our prototype by conducting a study on six healthy subjects.Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (I2MTC), 2010 IEEE; 06/2010