Macroautophagy is an intracellular degradation system for the majority of proteins and some organelles that is conserved in all eukaryotic species. The precise role of autophagy in mammalian development and potential involvement in disease remain to be discerned. Yeast Atg9p is the first integral membrane protein shown to be essential for the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway and autophagy, whereas its mammalian functional orthologue has yet to be identified. We have identified two human genes homologous to yeast Atg9p and designated these as APG9L1 and APG9L2. We have previously identified APG9L2 as NOS3AS, which participates in the post-transcriptional regulation of the endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (NOS3) gene on chromosome 7 through its antisense overlap. In human adult tissues, APG9L1 was ubiquitously expressed, whereas APG9L2 was highly expressed in placenta (trophoblast cells) and pituitary gland. In transient transfection assays we found that both proteins were primarily localized to the perinuclear region and also scattered throughout the cytosol as dots, a subset of which colocalized with an autophagosome-specific marker LC3 under starvation conditions. Finally, by the small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of APG9L1 in HeLa cells, we demonstrated that APG9L1 is essential for starvation-induced autophagosome formation. In addition, APG9L2 can functionally complement APG9L1 in this process. These results, taken together with those of phylogenetic and sequence analyses, suggest that both APG9L1 and APG9L2 are functionally orthologous to the yATG9 in autophagosome formation. Moreover, APG9L2 is a vertebrate-specific gene that may have gained critical roles in mammalian-specific developmental events, such as placentation, through rapid evolution.
"Atg9 is an integral membrane protein localized in the phagophore/pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS), the origin of the autophagosomal membranes [19, 20, 21]. Atg9 is required for both the formation and the expansion of the autophagosomes [22, 23]. The role of Atg9A in the formation of autophagosomes remains to be identified, although subcellular localization of the Atg9A protein is clearly dependent on nutrient availability. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a eukaryotic self-degradation system that plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Atg9 is the only transmembrane Atg protein required for autophagosome formation. Although the subcellular localization of the Atg9A has been examined, little is known about its precise cell and tissue distribution. In the present study, we used G93A mutation in superoxide dismutase 1 [SOD1(G93A)] mutant transgenic mice as an in vivo model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and performed immunohistochemical studies to investigate the changes of Atg9A immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of these mice. Atg9A-immunoreactivity was detected in the spinal cord, cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, thalamus and cerebellum of symptomatic SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. By contrast, no Atg9A-immunoreactivity were observed in any brain and spinal cord region of wtSOD1, pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic mice, and the number and staining intensity of Atg9A-positive cells did not differ in SOD1(G93A) mice between 8 and 13 weeks of age. These results provide evidence that Atg9A-immunoreactivity were found in the central nervous system of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice after clinical symptoms, suggesting a possible role in the pathologic process of ALS. However, the mechanisms underlying the increased immunoreactivity for Atg9A and the functional implications require elucidation.
"Atg9L1 is dispensable for LC3 recruitment but indispensable for S. typhimurium growth suppression Atg9 is a membrane-spanning protein that is essential for autophagosome formation in macroautophagy (Noda et al., 2000; Yamada et al., 2005; Young et al., 2006; Saitoh et al., 2009). We next examined the role of Atg9L1 in Salmonella xenophagy by monitoring the localization of GFP-LC3. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salmonella develops into resident bacteria in epithelial cells, and the autophagic machinery (Atg) is thought to play an important role in this process. In this paper, we show that an autophagosome-like double-membrane structure surrounds the Salmonella still residing within the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). This double membrane is defective in Atg9L1- and FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa (FIP200)-deficient cells. Atg9L1 and FIP200 are important for autophagy-specific recruitment of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) complex. However, in the absence of Atg9L1, FIP200, and the PI3K complex, LC3 and its E3-like enzyme, the Atg16L complex, are still recruited to Salmonella. We propose that the LC3 system is recruited through a mechanism that is independent of isolation membrane generation.
Molecular biology of the cell 04/2011; 22(13):2290-300. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E10-11-0893 · 4.47 Impact Factor
"Because autophagy is a highly conserved degradation system, it is expected that tissue distribution of Atg expression will be relatively uniform. However, the expression of human Atg9A mRNA is tissue dependent (Yamada et al. 2005). To examine in greater detail the precise cell and tissue distribution of Atg9Ap, we prepared an antibody specific to mouse Atg9Ap. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Old and unneeded intracellular macromolecules are delivered through autophagy to lysosomes that degrade macromolecules into bioactive monomers such as amino acids. Autophagy is conserved in eukaryotes and is essential for the maintenance of cellular metabolism. Currently, more than 30 autophagy-related genes (Atgs) have been identified in yeast. Of these genes, the18 that are essential for autophagosome formation are also conserved in mammalian cells. Atg9 is the only transmembrane Atg protein required for autophagosome formation. Although the subcellular localization of the Atg9A protein (Atg9Ap) has been examined, little is known about its precise cell and tissue distribution. To determine this, we produced an antibody specific to mouse Atg9Ap. The antibody recognized both non-glycosylated and glycosylated Atg9Ap, which have molecular masses of approximately 94 kDa and 105 kDa, respectively. Although Atg9Ap was ubiquitously detected, it was highly expressed in neurons of the central nervous system. In Purkinje cells, Atg9Ap immunoreactivity was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), trans-Golgi network (TGN), lysosomes/late endosomes, and in axon terminals. These results suggest that Atg9Ap may be involved in autophagosome formation in the ER and axon terminals of neurons, the TGN, and lysosomes/late endosomes.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 05/2010; 58(5):443-53. DOI:10.1369/jhc.2010.955690 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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