Interleukin-1beta decreases expression of the epithelial sodium channel alpha-subunit in alveolar epithelial cells via a p38 MAPK-dependent signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT Acute lung injury (ALI) is a devastating syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage, elevated airspace levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and flooding of the alveolar spaces with protein-rich edema fluid. Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is one of the most biologically active cytokines in the distal airspaces of patients with ALI. IL-1beta has been shown to increase lung epithelial and endothelial permeability. In this study, we hypothesized that IL-1beta would decrease vectorial ion and water transport across the distal lung epithelium. Therefore, we measured the effects of IL-1beta on transepithelial current, resistance, and sodium transport in primary cultures of alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells. IL-1beta significantly reduced the amiloride-sensitive fraction of the transepithelial current and sodium transport across rat ATII cell monolayers. Moreover, IL-1beta decreased basal and dexamethasone-induced epithelial sodium channel alpha-subunit (alpha ENaC) mRNA levels and total and cell-surface protein expression. The inhibitory effect of IL-1beta on alpha ENaC expression was mediated by the activation of p38 MAPK in both rat and human ATII cells and was independent of the activation of alpha v beta6 integrin and transforming growth factor-beta. These results indicate that IL-1beta may contribute to alveolar edema in ALI by reducing distal lung epithelial sodium absorption. This reduction in ion and water transport across the lung epithelium is in large part due to a decrease in alpha ENaC expression through p38 MAPK-dependent inhibition of alpha ENaC promoter activity and to an alteration in ENaC trafficking to the apical membrane of ATII cells.
Article: Lipopolysaccharide modifies amiloride-sensitive Na+ transport processes across human airway cells: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK 1/2 and 5.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are potent inducers of proinflammatory signaling pathways via the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), causing changes in the processes that control lung fluid homeostasis and contributing to the pathogenesis of lung disease. In human H441 airway epithelial cells, incubation of cells with 15 microg ml(-1) LPS caused a significant reduction in amiloride-sensitive I (sc) from 15 +/- 2 to 8 +/- 2 microA cm(-2) (p = 0.01, n = 13) and a shift in IC(50) amiloride of currents from 6.8 x 10(-7) to 6.4 x 10(-6) M. This effect was associated with a decrease in the activity of 5 pS, highly Na(+) selective, amiloride-sensitive <1 microM channels (HSC) and an increase in the activity of approximately 18 pS, nonselective, amiloride-sensitive >10 microM cation channels (NSC) in the apical membrane. LPS decreased alphaENaC mRNA and protein abundance, inferring that LPS inhibited alphaENaC gene expression. This correlated with the decrease in HSC activity, indicating that these channels, but not NSCs, were comprised of at least alphaENaC protein. LPS increased NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2, but decreased phosphorylation of ERK5 in H441 cells. Pretreatment of monolayers with PD98059 (20 microM) inhibited ERK1/2 phosphorylation, promoted phosphorylation of ERK5, increased alphaENaC protein abundance, and reversed the effect of LPS on I (sc) and the shift in amiloride sensitivity. Inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation were without effect. Taken together, our data indicate that LPS acts via ERK signaling pathways to decrease alphaENaC transcription, reducing HSC/ENaC channel abundance, activity, and transepithelial Na(+) transport in H441 airway epithelial cells.Pflügers Archiv - European Journal of Physiology 10/2009; 459(3):451-63. · 4.46 Impact Factor
Article: Genes that determine immunology and inflammation modify the basic defect of impaired ion conductance in cystic fibrosis epithelia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cystic fibrosis (CF) basic defect, caused by dysfunction of the apical chloride channel CFTR in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract epithelia, has not been employed so far to support the role of CF modifier genes. Patients were selected from 101 families with a total of 171 F508del-CFTR homozygous CF patients to identify CF modifying genes. A candidate gene based association study of 52 genes on 16 different chromosomes with a total of 182 genetic markers was performed. Differences in haplotype and/or diplotype distribution between case and reference CF subpopulations were analysed. Variants at immunologically relevant genes were associated with the manifestation of the CF basic defect (0.01<Praw<0.0001 at IL1B, TLR9, TNFα, CD95, STAT3 and TNFR). The intragenic background of F508del-CFTR chromosomes determined disease severity and manifestation of the basic defect (Praw=0.0009). Allele distributions comparing transmitted and non-transmitted alleles were distorted at several loci unlinked to CFTR. The inherited capabilities of the innate and adaptive immune system determine the manifestation of the CF basic defect. Variants on F508del-CFTR chromosomes contribute to the observed patient-to-patient variability among F508del-CFTR homozygotes. A survivor effect, manifesting as a transmission disequilibrium at many loci, is consistent with the improvement of clinical care over the last decades, resulting in a depletion of risk alleles at modifier genes. Awareness of non-genetic factors such as improvement of patient care over time is crucial for the interpretation of CF modifier studies.Journal of Medical Genetics 01/2011; 48(1):24-31. · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine if low tidal volume (V(t)) ventilation was beneficial when ventilating preterm fetuses. The authors ventilated preterm guinea pig fetuses at gestation day (GD) 67, 3 days before birth, newborn, and 10-day-old (PD10) guinea pigs with low V(t) (6 mL/kg body weight [bw]) and compared them to age-matched fetuses/animals ventilated with higher potentially injurious V(t) (12 mL/kg bw). Lung fluid absorption was measured after intratracheal instillation of 5% albumin in 0.9% NaCl. Low V(t) ventilation stimulated lung fluid absorption when compared to higher V(t) in all groups. The increased lung fluid absorption in low V(t)-ventilated fetuses was associated with increased α epithelial Na channel (αEnaC) mRNA. However, αENaC and βENaC protein was unchanged over the 1-hour study. Because stretch induces mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase expression and MAP kinases may affect lung fluid absorption, the authors investigated if MAP kinase (MAPK) expression was affected by V(t). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) were phosphorylated in the higher V(t)-ventilated guinea pig fetuses. This suggested that a reduced activation of MAP kinases might explain the increased lung fluid absorption in the low V(t)-ventilated fetuses. Thus these data suggest that low V(t) ventilation increases fetal lung fluid absorption and thus may be preferential to use clinically.Experimental Lung Research 11/2010; 37(1):44-56. · 1.22 Impact Factor