2-Amino-3-(purin-9-yl)propanoic acids substituted at position 6 of the purine base moiety by dimethylamino, cyclopropylamino, pyrrolidin-1-yl, hydroxy, and sulfanyl group as well as their 2-aminopurine analogues were prepared from corresponding 9-(2,2-diethoxyethyl)purines and 2-aminopurines, respectively, by the Strecker synthesis. 2-Aminopropanoic acid derivatives were tested for their immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory potency. Some of these compounds significantly enhanced secretion of chemokines RANTES and MIP-1alpha, the most potent was 2-amino-6-sulfanylpurine derivative. Most of these compounds also augmented NO biosynthesis triggered primarily by IFN-gamma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) and resulting high-output NO release is known to depend on the action of cytokines. We investigated in vitro production of NO by resident peritoneal macrophages from mice and rats, and secretion of cytokines by these cells as well as by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The cells were cultured in the presence of a selected group of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates that have previously been shown to possess immunobiological potential. Several of the compounds enhanced production of NO in animal macrophages. This activity was associated with stimulatory effects on secretion of cytokines such as TNF-alpha in all mouse and rat macrophages and human PBMC, and IL-10 in mouse and human cells. Statistically highly significant correlation between the range of NO biosynthesis in rodent cells and extent of cytokine stimulation in human PBMC has been observed. It is suggested that the NO assay may be regarded as an efficient, economical and relatively reliable tool in primary screening for intrinsic immunostimulatory activity of compounds in human cell system, at least from the point of view of cytokine secretion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates are novel class of clinically broadly used antivirotics effective against replication of both DNA viruses and retroviruses including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We have investigated their in vitro effects on immune defence mechanisms in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, with the main emphasis on expression of cytokines which are able to suppress the entry of HIV in cells. Included in the study were prototype acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, i.e. 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA; adefovir), 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (PMEDAP), (R)-and (S)-enantiomers of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(R)-PMPA; tenofovir] and [(S)-PMPA], and of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine [(R)-PMPDAP] and [(S)-PMPDAP], and their N(6)-substituted derivatives. Some of the compounds were found to substantially enhance secretion of chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-alpha/CCL3), and "regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted" (RANTES/CCL5). Secretion of MIP-1beta/CCL4 was only marginally increased, whereas production of interleukin-16 (IL-16) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) remained uninfluenced. The most effective proved to be the N(6)-cyclooctyl-PMEDAP, N(6)-isobutyl-PMEDAP, N(6)-pyrrolidino-PMEDAP, N(6)-cyclopropyl-(R)-PMPDAP, and N(6)-cyclopentyl-(R)-PMPDAP derivatives. Remarkably enhanced secretion of chemokines was reached within 2-4 h of the cell culture, and was observed at concentration of 2-5 microM. It may be suggested that acyclic nucleoside phosphonates represent a new generation of antivirotics with combined antimetabolic and therapeutically prospective immunostimulatory properties.
European Journal of Pharmacology 12/2007; 574(1):77-84. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2007.07.024 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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