Simo LS, Krisky CM, Sweeney JA. Functional neuroanatomy of anticipatory behavior: dissociation between sensory-driven and memory-driven systems. Cereb Cortex 15: 1982-1991

Center for Cognitive Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.
Cerebral Cortex (Impact Factor: 8.67). 12/2005; 15(12):1982-91. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhi073
Source: PubMed


The ability to anticipate predictable stimuli allows faster responses. The predictive saccade (PRED) task has been shown to quickly induce such anticipatory behavior in humans. In a PRED task subjects track a visual target jumping back and forth between fixed positions at a fixed time interval. During this task, saccade latencies drop from approximately 200 ms to <80 ms as subjects anticipate target appearance. This change in saccade latency indicates that subjects' behavior shifts from being sensory driven to being memory driven. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging studies with 10 healthy adults performing the PRED task using a standard block design. We compared the PRED task with a visually guided saccade (VGS) task using unpredictable targets matched for number, direction and amplitude of required saccades. Our results show greater activation during the PRED task in the prefrontal, pre-supplementary motor and anterior cingulate cortices, hippocampus, mediodorsal thalamus, striatum and cerebellum. The VGS task elicited greater activation in the cortical eye fields and occipital cortex. These results demonstrate the important dissociation between sensory and predictive neural control of similar saccadic eye movements. Anticipatory behavior induced by the PRED task required less sensory-related processing activity and was subserved by a distributed cortico-subcortical memory system including prefronto-striatal circuitry.

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Available from: John A Sweeney, Jan 08, 2014
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    • "The dose-dependent decline in anticipatory saccade accuracy after treatment suggests that antipsychotic medication may directly alter the integrity of neural systems supporting operations such as spatial learning and memory, response planning or procedural learning. Frontostriatal circuitry provides key support for such functions, including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), premotor cortex, anterior cingulate and striatum (Simo et al., 2005). Of these cortical regions, DLPFC has shown reduced activation after 4–6 weeks of second generation antipsychotic treatment in firstepisode schizophrenia patients performing a prosaccade task (Keedy et al., 2009) and a predictive saccade task (Keedy et al., in press). "
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    ABSTRACT: Neurocognitive deficits are associated with most psychotic disorders, but may differ across diagnosis and by treatment status. This ambiguity is partly addressed in longitudinal pre/post treatment studies with first episode patients. Antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients have shown intact performance on a predictive saccade task that assesses simple motor learning, spatial abilities, and response planning. After antipsychotic treatment, however, schizophrenia patients performing this task show a selective impairment in the accuracy of anticipatory responses, generated from learned internal representations of the task stimulus. This finding is in line with other observations of antipsychotic medication effects on frontostriatal systems, particularly dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We sought to replicate this provocative finding with an independent sample of antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients and extend it by including a group of patients with first episode bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP). Matched healthy controls were also studied in parallel. Schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact performance pretreatment followed by impairment post-treatment for accuracy of anticipatory responses, and worse accuracy was associated with higher antipsychotic dose. BDP patients displayed saccade accuracy deficits before and after treatment and had no correlation of performance and antipsychotic dose. The findings suggest different neural alterations early in the course of each psychotic disorder, and different vulnerabilities to antipsychotic treatment effects between schizophrenia and BDP.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2014; 159(1). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.07.028 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "A memory-guided go/no-go saccade task in the MEG was used to obtain a functional localization of individual frontal eye-fields (FEFs; for details about the saccade paradigm, see Lee et al., 2013). We focused on the FEFs located in and around the precentral sulcus and gyrus (Simó et al., 2005). For each subject, the anatomical constraints to the bilateral superior and inferior precentral sulci and the precentral gyri were defined by an automated surface-based parcellation (Fischl et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Frequency tagging of sensory inputs (presenting stimuli that fluctuate periodically at rates to which the cortex can phase lock) has been used to study attentional modulation of neural responses to inputs in different sensory modalities. For visual inputs, the visual steady-state response (VSSR) at the frequency modulating an attended object is enhanced, while the VSSR to a distracting object is suppressed. In contrast, the effect of attention on the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is inconsistent across studies. However, most auditory studies analyzed results at the sensor level or used only a small number of equivalent current dipoles to fit cortical responses. In addition, most studies of auditory spatial attention used dichotic stimuli (independent signals at the ears) rather than more natural, binaural stimuli. Here, we asked whether these methodological choices help explain discrepant results. Listeners attended to one of two competing speech streams, one simulated from the left and one from the right, that were modulated at different frequencies. Using distributed source modeling of magnetoencephalography results, we estimate how spatially directed attention modulates the ASSR in neural regions across the whole brain. Attention enhances the ASSR power at the frequency of the attended stream in contralateral auditory cortex. The attended-stream modulation frequency also drives phase-locked responses in the left (but not right) precentral sulcus (lPCS), a region implicated in control of eye gaze and visual spatial attention. Importantly, this region shows no phase locking to the distracting stream. Results suggest that the lPCS in engaged in an attention-specific manner. Modeling results that take account of the geometry and phases of the cortical sources phase locked to the two streams (including hemispheric asymmetry of lPCS activity) help to explain why past ASSR studies of auditory spatial attention yield seemingly contradictory results.
    Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience 02/2014; 8:6. DOI:10.3389/fnint.2014.00006
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    • "Furthermore, a priori data from previous studies for areas with activity during a delay also informed this choice. These priori areas involved in memory included: early visual areas (V1) [24], [25], V5 [26], FEF and SEF [9], [27], the DLFPC [4], [15], the superior parietal lobe (SPL) [28], the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) [29], [30], [15] and the cerebellum (CBM) [15]. An 8 mm sphere was positioned around the centre of mass for each of the identified ROIs with significant activations (T>4.5, voxel size >15, FWE of p<0.05) within each subject. "
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    ABSTRACT: How the brain stores motion information and subsequently uses it to follow a moving target is largely unknown. This is mainly due to previous fMRI studies using paradigms in which the eye movements cannot be segregated from the storage of this motion information. To avoid this problem we used a novel paradigm designed in our lab in which we interlaced a delay (2, 4 or 6 seconds) between the 1(st) and 2(nd) presentation of a moving stimulus. Using this design we could examine brain activity during a delay period using fMRI and have subsequently found a number of brain areas that reveal sustained activity during predictive pursuit. These areas include, the V5 complex and superior parietal lobe. This study provides new evidence for the network involved in the storage of visual information to generate early motor responses in pursuit.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(9):e73326. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073326 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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