Dynamic sorting of nuclear components into distinct nucleolar caps during transcriptional inhibition.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 Israel.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (Impact Factor: 4.55). 06/2005; 16(5):2395-413. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E04-11-0992
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nucleolar segregation is observed under some physiological conditions of transcriptional arrest. This process can be mimicked by transcriptional arrest after actinomycin D treatment leading to the segregation of nucleolar components and the formation of unique structures termed nucleolar caps surrounding a central body. These nucleolar caps have been proposed to arise from the segregation of nucleolar components. We show that contrary to prevailing notion, a group of nucleoplasmic proteins, mostly RNA binding proteins, relocalized from the nucleoplasm to a specific nucleolar cap during transcriptional inhibition. For instance, an exclusively nucleoplasmic protein, the splicing factor PSF, localized to nucleolar caps under these conditions. This structure also contained pre-rRNA transcripts, but other caps contained either nucleolar proteins, PML, or Cajal body proteins and in addition nucleolar or Cajal body RNAs. In contrast to the capping of the nucleoplasmic components, nucleolar granular component proteins dispersed into the nucleoplasm, although at least two (p14/ARF and MRP RNA) were retained in the central body. The nucleolar caps are dynamic structures as determined using photobleaching and require energy for their formation. These findings demonstrate that the process of nucleolar segregation and capping involves energy-dependent repositioning of nuclear proteins and RNAs and emphasize the dynamic characteristics of nuclear domain formation in response to cellular stress.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nucleolus is a multifunctional nuclear compartment usually consisting of two to three subcompartments which represent stages of ribosomal biogenesis. It is linked to several human diseases including viral infections, cancer, and neurodegeneration. Dictyostelium is a model eukaryote for the study of fundamental biological processes as well as several human diseases however comparatively little is known about its nucleolus. Unlike most nucleoli it does not possess visible subcompartments at the ultrastructural level. Several recently identified nucleolar proteins in Dictyostelium leave the nucleolus after treatment with the rDNA transcription inhibitor actinomycin-D (AM-D). Different proteins exit in different ways, suggesting that previously unidentified nucleolar subcompartments may exist. The identification of nucleolar subcompartments would help to better understand the nucleolus in this model eukaryote. Here, we show that Dictyostelium nucleolar proteins nucleomorphin isoform NumA1 and Bud31 localize throughout the entire nucleolus while calcium-binding protein 4a localizes to only a portion, representing nucleolar subcompartment 1 (NoSC1). SWI/SNF complex member Snf12 localizes to a smaller area within NoSC1 representing a second nucleolar subcompartment, NoSC2. The nuclear/nucleolar localization signal KRKR from Snf12 localized GFP to NoSC2, and thus also appears to function as a nucleolar subcompartment localization signal. FhkA localizes to the nucleolar periphery displaying a similar pattern to that of Hsp32. Similarities between the redistribution patterns of Dictyostelium nucleolar proteins during nucleolar disruption as a result of either AM-D treatment or mitosis support these subcompartments. A model for the AM-D-induced redistribution patterns is proposed.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2014; 433(4). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.12.050 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The repair of spontaneous and induced DNA lesions is a multistep process. Depending on the type of injury, damaged DNA is recognized by many proteins specifically involved in distinct DNA repair pathways. We analyzed the DNA-damage response after ultraviolet A (UVA) and γ irradiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and focused on upstream binding factor 1 (UBF1), a key protein in the regulation of ribosomal gene transcription. We found that UBF1, but not nucleolar proteins RPA194, TCOF, or fibrillarin, was recruited to UVA-irradiated chromatin concurrently with an increase in heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) level. Moreover, Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) confirmed interaction between UBF1 and HP1β that was dependent on a functional chromo shadow domain of HP1β. Thus, overexpression of HP1β with a deleted chromo shadow domain had a dominant-negative effect on UBF1 recruitment to UVA-damaged chromatin. Transcription factor UBF1 also interacted directly with DNA inside the nucleolus but no interaction of UBF1 and DNA was confirmed outside the nucleolus, where UBF1 recruitment to DNA lesions appeared simultaneously with cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers; this occurrence was cell-cycle-independent. We propose that the simultaneous presence and interaction of UBF1 and HP1β at DNA lesions is activated by the presence of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and mediated by the chromo shadow domain of HP1β. This might have functional significance for nucleotide excision repair.
    Epigenetics & Chromatin 01/2014; 7(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1756-8935-7-39 · 4.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The intracellular environment represents an extremely crowded milieu, with a limited amount of free water and an almost complete lack of unoccupied space. Obviously, slightly salted aqueous solutions containing low concentrations of a biomolecule of interest are too simplistic to mimic the "real life" situation, where the biomolecule of interest scrambles and wades through the tightly packed crowd. In laboratory practice, such macromolecular crowding is typically mimicked by concentrated solutions of various polymers that serve as model "crowding agents". Studies under these conditions revealed that macromolecular crowding might affect protein structure, folding, shape, conformational stability, binding of small molecules, enzymatic activity, protein-protein interactions, protein-nucleic acid interactions, and pathological aggregation. The goal of this review is to systematically analyze currently available experimental data on the variety of effects of macromolecular crowding on a protein molecule. The review covers more than 320 papers and therefore represents one of the most comprehensive compendia of the current knowledge in this exciting area.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 15(12):23090-23140. DOI:10.3390/ijms151223090 · 2.46 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 23, 2014