The global distribution of clinical episodes of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Public Health Group, KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories PO Box 43640, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 04/2005; 434(7030):214-7. DOI: 10.1038/nature03342
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Interest in mapping the global distribution of malaria is motivated by a need to define populations at risk for appropriate resource allocation and to provide a robust framework for evaluating its global economic impact. Comparison of older and more recent malaria maps shows how the disease has been geographically restricted, but it remains entrenched in poor areas of the world with climates suitable for transmission. Here we provide an empirical approach to estimating the number of clinical events caused by Plasmodium falciparum worldwide, by using a combination of epidemiological, geographical and demographic data. We estimate that there were 515 (range 300-660) million episodes of clinical P. falciparum malaria in 2002. These global estimates are up to 50% higher than those reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and 200% higher for areas outside Africa, reflecting the WHO's reliance upon passive national reporting for these countries. Without an informed understanding of the cartography of malaria risk, the global extent of clinical disease caused by P. falciparum will continue to be underestimated.

Download full-text


Available from: Abdisalan Noor, Jul 28, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol stem bark extracts of Commiphora swynnertonii were evaluated for larvicidal potential against laboratory reared late third stage instar of mosquito namely, Anopheles gambiae ss Gile, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti L. The WHO methodology was adopted with minor modification using methanol extract with concentrations ranged from 25-300μg/mL and ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts with concentrations ranged from 5-50μg/mL. The activity was time and dose dependent where, ethyl acetate extract revealed higher larvicidal activity with LC50 ranged from 14.6395-3.9455μg/mL, 2 5 . 1 0 9 6 - 5 . 3 4 4 2 μg/mL, 27.0405-8.4829 μg/mL for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles gambiae at 24h, 48h, and 72h of exposure respectively. Among the three species of mosquito larvae tested, Anopheles gambiae was found to be relatively resistant to extracts followed by Culex quinquefasciatus and the weakest was Aedes aegypti. These results validate use of Commiphora swynnertonii as a potential botanical larvicidal agent in controlling mosquitoes and the spread of mosquito borne diseases.
    International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) 03/2015; volume 4(issue 3):356-361. · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim This ethnobotanical survey was conducted to investigate the pattern of treatment practices and medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods Focus group discussions were initially held with traditional herbal medicine practitioners (THMPs), herb retailers (HRs), elderly people, nursing mothers and undergraduate students to identify who had ever used herbs to treat malaria fever. Participants were recruited from various local government areas in Lagos. Five hundred and fifty eligible participants were interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire purposely designed to collect information on the type, composition, method of preparation, dosage, and mode of administration of herbal preparations used as local antimalarial therapies. Results Herb sellers (36.4%), THMPs (27.3%), nursing mothers (27.3%), undergraduate students with knowledge of herb use (5.5%), and elderly people with knowledge of herb use (3.5%) were the participants in this study. Forty one plant species belonging to 27 families were identified as being used locally for antimalarial herbal recipes. Of these Enantia chlorantha (31.5%), Carica papaya (27.5%), Azadirachta indica (25.5%), Cymbopogon citrates (23.3%), Morinda lucida (22.7%), Mangifera indica (21.1%), and Alstonia boonei (20.5%) were the most frequently used plants. The stem barks, roots, leaves or whole plants were the plant parts most frequently used. These were used either alone or in combination with other plant parts. Different plant species were also used in combinations. Conclusion Indigenous plants with potential antimalarial properties were identified in this survey. The plants could serve as good sources of new antimalarial plant therapies.
    08/2014; 4(4). DOI:10.1016/j.hermed.2014.08.001
  • Source
    Dataset: man 3