The Global Distribution of Clinical Episodes of Plasmodium Falciparum malaria

Public Health Group, KEMRI/Wellcome Trust Research Laboratories PO Box 43640, 00100 Nairobi, Kenya.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 03/2005; 434(7030):214-7. DOI: 10.1038/nature03342
Source: PubMed


Interest in mapping the global distribution of malaria is motivated by a need to define populations at risk for appropriate resource allocation and to provide a robust framework for evaluating its global economic impact. Comparison of older and more recent malaria maps shows how the disease has been geographically restricted, but it remains entrenched in poor areas of the world with climates suitable for transmission. Here we provide an empirical approach to estimating the number of clinical events caused by Plasmodium falciparum worldwide, by using a combination of epidemiological, geographical and demographic data. We estimate that there were 515 (range 300-660) million episodes of clinical P. falciparum malaria in 2002. These global estimates are up to 50% higher than those reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) and 200% higher for areas outside Africa, reflecting the WHO's reliance upon passive national reporting for these countries. Without an informed understanding of the cartography of malaria risk, the global extent of clinical disease caused by P. falciparum will continue to be underestimated.

Download full-text


Available from: Abdisalan Noor, Jul 28, 2014
84 Reads
  • Source
    • "Malaria is transmitted by the blood feeding of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and it is an important global health problem and causing over half a billion cases with one million deaths a year [17] [18]. 80% of deaths from malaria occur in just 14 countries including Nigeria [19], and 7% of deaths in the under 5 in 2010 was caused by malaria [19]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Malaria has been a major threat to the life of patients living within Port Harcourt and its environs despite adoption of different preventive strategies to combat it even with a constant mass distribution of long lasting insecticide treated mosquito nets, increased community awareness programmes, increased availability of Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), biolarviciding and increased advertisements of the dangers of malaria by both government and drug producers. This study investigated the causes of constant visits of patients for malaria treatment in UPTH-Nigeria, measures adopted by the patients for prevention and reduction of malaria and possible preventive measures. 500 willing patients was used for this study using both structured questionnaires and oral interview to obtain information regarding their demographic malaria preventive strategies adopted, drugs used for malaria treatment and prevention as goals for reduction of associated morbidity and mortality. This study revealed that patients are making efforts to curb malaria by the use of ACTs 376 (75.2%) but improper use of adequate malaria drugs in form of non-ACTs 279 (55.8%) resulted in an inadequate cure as many visited patent medicine dealers for initial treatment, inability to get the proper drugs prescribed to them by medical practitioners due to poverty, improper protection of houses with nets in doors and windows 252 (50.4%), stagnant drainage systems 462 (92.4%), inability to cut bushes around their homes 363 (72.6%) and poor use of insecticides 265 (53%) has been a major pitfall to their having a proper and long lasting treatment for malaria.
  • Source
    • "Malaria remains a major parasitic disease in the tropical and subtropical countries causing 1–2 million deaths globally every year [1] [2]. All the pathological symptoms of malaria are due to asexual stage life cycle of the parasite in the host erythrocytes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, takes up numerous host cytosolic components and exogenous nutrients through endocytosis during the intra-erythrocytic stages. Eps15 homology domain-containing proteins (EHDs) are conserved NTPases, which are implicated in membrane remodeling and regulation of specific endocytic transport steps in eukaryotic cells. In the present study, we have characterized the dynamin-like C-terminal Eps15 homology domain containing protein of P. falciparum (PfEHD). Using a GFP-targeting approach, we studied localization and trafficking of PfEHD in the parasite. The PfEHD-GFP fusion protein was found to be a membrane bound protein that associates with vesicular network in the parasite. Time-lapse microscopy studies showed that these vesicles originate at parasite plasma membrane, migrate through the parasite cytosol and culminate into a large multi-vesicular like structure near the food-vacuole. Co-staining of food vacuole membrane showed that the multi-vesicular structure is juxtaposed but outside the food vacuole. Labeling of parasites with neutral lipid specific dye, Nile Red, showed that this large structure is neutral lipid storage site in the parasites. Proteomic analysis identified endocytosis modulators as PfEHD associated proteins in the parasites. Treatment of parasites with endocytosis inhibitors obstructed the development of PfEHD-labeled vesicles and blocked their targeting to the lipid storage site. Overall, our data suggests that the PfEHD is involved in endocytosis and plays a role in the generation of endocytic vesicles at the parasite plasma membrane, that are subsequently targeted to the neutral lipid generation/storage site localized near the food vacuole. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2015; 1853(11). DOI:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2015.08.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Antagonistic or synergistic interactions of parasites in animal models have been suggested to show similar phenomena in humans [2]. In Africa, malaria and schistosomiasis are the first and second most important parasitic diseases with public health implications, respectively [3] [4], with cases of concomitant occurrence in many epidemiological studies conducted in the region [2] [5] [6]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schistosomiasis and malaria are two common parasitic diseases that are co-endemic in resource-poor communities of sub-Saharan Africa. This study aims to assess the effects of single and concomitant Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium infections on two indicators of renal injury in school children in a rural community of Nigeria. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was carried out on a total of 173 schoolchildren between ages 6 and 18 years (mean age 11.4±2.6 years). Urine and blood samples were collected by standard methods for concurrent microscopic diagnosis of S. haematobium and P. falciparum infections. Urinary blood (hematuria) and protein were determined using a urinalysis dipstick. The prevalence of single infections was 75.1% and 78.2% for S. haematobium and P. falciparum, respectively. A total of 57.1% individuals were infected with the two parasites. The prevalence of hematuria was significantly higher in the co-infection status (63.8%) than in single S. haematobium (52.2%) and P. falciparum (43.7%) infection statuses (p=0.04), while no significant variation was recorded in proteinuria in the three infection statuses (p=0.53). The proportion of children with renal injury associated with the co-infection of these parasites is very high, particularly in young children, who seem to have a higher prevalence of hematuria. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jiph.2015.06.013
Show more