Article

Sound of silence activates auditory cortex

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 04/2005; 434(7030):158. DOI: 10.1038/434158a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Auditory imagery occurs when one mentally rehearses telephone numbers or has a song 'on the brain'--it is the subjective experience of hearing in the absence of auditory stimulation, and is useful for investigating aspects of human cognition. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and characterize the neural substrates that support unprompted auditory imagery and find that auditory and visual imagery seem to obey similar basic neural principles.

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    • "The auditory association cortex appears to play an important role in both hallucination and mental imagery of sounds (Zatorre et al., 1996; Lennox et al., 2000; Kraemer et al., 2005; Jardri et al., 2007) as does the visual association cortex for hallucination and mental imagery in that modality (D'Esposito et al., 1997; Ffytche et al., 1998). To summarise, the auditory and visual association cortices can be seen to relate to the occurrence of alterations in perception, and it might be that greater structural development of these neural structures facilitates the generation of complex perceptual experiences which is then reflected by higher suggestibility scores. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research Neuroimaging 12/2014; 231(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.11.015 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "The association of TPJ with auditory processing and auditory imagery arose from early functional neuroimaging studies that observed left TPJ activation when subjects imagined hearing another person's voice in the absence of any auditory stimulation or motor activity (McGuire et al., 1996). Subsequent studies have also shown left-lateralized activation in the TPJ in response to: silently imagining speech (Shergill et al., 2001); imagining the auditory relative to visual associations of a picture of a scene (Wheeler et al., 2000); experiencing tones and visual stimuli (Xue et al., 2006); silence following familiar music, even when there was no instruction to remember the music (Kraemer et al., 2005); passively viewing finger tapping on a piano following keyboard training (Hasegawa et al., 2004); producing rhythmic finger sequences that had been learnt with an auditory cue (Bengtsson et al., 2005); and imagining heard speech, music or environmental sounds in the absence of any acoustic stimulus (Aleman et al., 2005; Bunzeck et al., 2005; Zatorre and Halpern, 2005). Without a functional localizer it is unclear which, if any, of these responses in TPJ was generated in area Spt. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this paper was to investigate the neurological underpinnings of auditory-to-motor translation during auditory repetition of unfamiliar pseudowords. We tested two different hypotheses. First we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 25 healthy subjects to determine whether a functionally defined area in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), referred to as Sylvian-parietal-temporal region (Spt), reflected the demands on auditory-to-motor integration during the repetition of pseudowords relative to a semantically mediated nonverbal sound-naming task. The experiment also allowed us to test alternative accounts of Spt function, namely that Spt is involved in subvocal articulation or auditory processing that can be driven either bottom-up or top-down. The results did not provide convincing evidence that activation increased in either Spt or any other cortical area when non-semantic auditory inputs were being translated into motor outputs. Instead, the results were most consistent with Spt responding to bottom up or top down auditory processing, independent of the demands on auditory-to-motor integration. Second, we investigated the lesion sites in eight patients who had selective difficulties repeating heard words but with preserved word comprehension, picture naming and verbal fluency (i.e., conduction aphasia). All eight patients had white-matter tract damage in the vicinity of the arcuate fasciculus and only one of the eight patients had additional damage to the Spt region, defined functionally in our fMRI data. Our results are therefore most consistent with the neurological tradition that emphasizes the importance of the arcuate fasciculus in the non-semantic integration of auditory and motor speech processing.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:24. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00024 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Auditory imagery appears in a variety of forms such as silent reading, speech perception, auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and in conversations with spiritual beings, earworms and most relevant to this study, musical imagery (Barrett and Etheridge 1992; Beaman and Williams 2010; Harley 2010; Kraemer et al. 2005; Luckoff 2007; McGuire et al. 1996). For example, Kraemer et al. (2005) monitored participants using an fMRI scanner and asked them to passively listen to excerpts of familiar songs such as 'Satisfaction' by The Rolling Stones and The Pink Panther theme tune as well as other less familiar songs. At numerous points throughout the songs, short sections (2 to 5 s long) were removed and replaced with silence. "
    Current Psychology 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12144-014-9232-7 · 0.27 Impact Factor
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