Musical imagery—Sound of silence activates auditory cortex

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755, USA.
Nature (Impact Factor: 41.46). 04/2005; 434(7030):158. DOI: 10.1038/434158a
Source: PubMed


Auditory imagery occurs when one mentally rehearses telephone numbers or has a song 'on the brain'--it is the subjective experience of hearing in the absence of auditory stimulation, and is useful for investigating aspects of human cognition. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and characterize the neural substrates that support unprompted auditory imagery and find that auditory and visual imagery seem to obey similar basic neural principles.

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    • "The auditory association cortex appears to play an important role in both hallucination and mental imagery of sounds (Zatorre et al., 1996; Lennox et al., 2000; Kraemer et al., 2005; Jardri et al., 2007) as does the visual association cortex for hallucination and mental imagery in that modality (D'Esposito et al., 1997; Ffytche et al., 1998). To summarise, the auditory and visual association cortices can be seen to relate to the occurrence of alterations in perception, and it might be that greater structural development of these neural structures facilitates the generation of complex perceptual experiences which is then reflected by higher suggestibility scores. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study explores whether self-reported depth of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestibility are associated with individual differences in neuroanatomy and/or levels of functional connectivity. Twenty-nine people varying in suggestibility were recruited and underwent structural, and after a hypnotic induction, functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the correlation of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) against the independent variables: depth of hypnosis, level of relaxation and hypnotic suggestibility. Functional networks identified with independent components analysis were regressed with the independent variables. Hypnotic depth ratings were positively correlated with GM volume in the frontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Hypnotic suggestibility was positively correlated with GM volume in the left temporal-occipital cortex. Relaxation ratings did not correlate significantly with GM volume and none of the independent variables correlated with regional WM volume measures. Self-reported deeper levels of hypnosis were associated with less connectivity within the anterior default mode network. Taken together, the results suggest that the greater GM volume in the medial frontal cortex and ACC, and lower connectivity in the DMN during hypnosis facilitate experiences of greater hypnotic depth. The patterns of results suggest that hypnotic depth and hypnotic suggestibility should not be considered synonyms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 12/2014; 231(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.11.015 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Auditory imagery appears in a variety of forms such as silent reading, speech perception, auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia and in conversations with spiritual beings, earworms and most relevant to this study, musical imagery (Barrett and Etheridge 1992; Beaman and Williams 2010; Harley 2010; Kraemer et al. 2005; Luckoff 2007; McGuire et al. 1996). For example, Kraemer et al. (2005) monitored participants using an fMRI scanner and asked them to passively listen to excerpts of familiar songs such as 'Satisfaction' by The Rolling Stones and The Pink Panther theme tune as well as other less familiar songs. At numerous points throughout the songs, short sections (2 to 5 s long) were removed and replaced with silence. "
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    ABSTRACT: We report two experiments exploring whether imagining music improves spatial rotation via increases in arousal and mood levels (Schellenberg 2005). To aid their imagination, participants were given instructions (none, basic or detailed) and lyrics (present or absent). Experiment 1 showed no effect of instructions or lyrics on performance although participants felt that the presence of the lyrics helped. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that the participants were musicians (as evidenced by musical experience and/or qualification). This time there was a significant effect of instructions in that those who received the detailed instructions performed significantly better than the no instruction condition although the presence of lyrics did not help. Further research is required to establish the similarity of the imagination to the traditional arousal and mood effect but the phenomenon may be useful for short-term boosts in spatial rotation activities.
    Current Psychology 12/2014; 33(4). DOI:10.1007/s12144-014-9232-7 · 0.27 Impact Factor
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    • "The neural activations of music imagination and music perception have also been found to show commonalities, both in terms of regional specificity measured using positron emission tomography (PET) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (cf. Halpern and Zatorre, 1999; Kraemer et al., 2005; Herholz et al., 2012) and in terms of temporal activation patterns measured using magneto-encephalography (MEG) or electro-encephalography (EEG) (Herholz et al., 2008; Schaefer et al., 2009, 2011a,b). Notably, the degree of such shared activation appears to vary with the complexity of the imagined musical stimulus, with more shared activation for simple stimuli than for complex stimuli such as ecologically valid music (Schaefer et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Music is commonly used to facilitate or support movement, and increasingly used in movement rehabilitation. Additionally, there is some evidence to suggest that music imagery, which is reported to lead to brain signatures similar to music perception, may also assist movement. However, it is not yet known whether either imagined or musical cueing changes the way in which the motor system of the human brain is activated during simple movements. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural activity during wrist flexions performed to either heard or imagined music with self-pacing of the same movement without any cueing. Focusing specifically on the motor network of the brain, analyses were performed within a mask of BA4, BA6, the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate, and pallidum), the motor nuclei of the thalamus, and the whole cerebellum. Results revealed that moving to music compared with self-paced movement resulted in significantly increased activation in left cerebellum VI. Moving to imagined music led to significantly more activation in pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and right globus pallidus, relative to self-paced movement. When the music and imagery cueing conditions were contrasted directly, movements in the music condition showed significantly more activity in left hemisphere cerebellum VII and right hemisphere and vermis of cerebellum IX, while the imagery condition revealed more significant activity in pre-SMA. These results suggest that cueing movement with actual or imagined music impacts upon engagement of motor network regions during the movement, and suggest that heard and imagined cues can modulate movement in subtly different ways. These results may have implications for the applicability of auditory cueing in movement rehabilitation for different patient populations.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 09/2014; 8:774. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00774 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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