Characteristics of autoimmune thyroid disease occurring as a late complication of immune reconstitution in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.
ABSTRACT Experimental evidence from animal models has provided a framework for our current understanding of autoimmune disease pathogenesis and supports the importance of genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry, and immune dysregulation. However, only recently has evidence emerged to support the role of immune dysregulation in human organ-specific autoimmune disease. In the current study of the "late" manifestation of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we discuss how immune dysregulation and factors associated with the immunopathology of HIV infection fit the current understanding of autoimmunity and provide a plausible basis for our clinical observations. De novo diagnoses of thyroid disease were identified between 1996 and 2002 in 7 HIV treatment centers (5/7 centers completed the study). Patients were diagnosed as clinical case entities and not discovered through thyroid function test screening. Paired plasma specimens were used to demonstrate sequential rise in thyroid antibodies. Seventeen patients were diagnosed with AITD (median age, 38 yr; 65% were of black African or black Caribbean ethnicity; and 82% were female). The median duration of immune reconstitution was 17 months. Graves disease (GD) was diagnosed in 15 of 17 patients. One patient developed hashithyrotoxicosis with atypically raised C-reactive protein, and another developed hypothyroidism. One GD patient had associated secondary hypoadrenalism. The estimated combined prevalence of GD for 4 treatment centers for female patients was 7/234 and for males was 2/1289. The denominator numbers were matched controls, from 4 centers able to provide data, who commenced HAART during the same time (January 1996 to July 2002) and who did not develop clinical AITD. The mean baseline pre-HAART CD4 count was 67 cells/mL, and the mean increase from nadir to AITD presentation was 355 cells/mL. AITD patients were more likely than controls (95% confidence interval, chi-square test) to be severely compromised at baseline (as defined by a CD4 count < 200 cells/mL or the presence of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining diagnosis), and to experience greater CD4 increments following HAART. AITD may be a late manifestation of immune reconstitution in HIV-positive patients taking HAART, and immune dysregulation may be an important factor.
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ABSTRACT: In this Overview, common themes of the accompanying News & Views on RA, SLE, IDDM, thyroiditis and MS are discussed. A unifying concept for the development of these and other autoimmune diseases should incorporate genetic predisposition, environmental factors and immune dysregulation.Nature Immunology 10/2001; 2(9):759-61. · 26.20 Impact Factor
- Nature Immunology 10/2001; 2(9):781-4. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To ascertain if immunization results in the restoration of responses to recall antigens, in the development of responses to presumed neoantigens, and to identify the virologic and immunologic correlates of these responses in persons with HIV-1 infection. Open-label study carried out at three university-affiliated AIDS Clinical Trials Units in the United States. Thirty-one subjects participating in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 375 who had received zidovudine, lamivudine, and ritonavir for at least 48 weeks. Subjects were immunized with tetanus toxoid (TT) at entry and with inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (hep A) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) at entry and 6 weeks. The development of antibody, lymphocyte proliferative assay (LPA), and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses after immunization were monitored. The LPA and DTH responses to TT improved in 57 and 68% of participants, respectively; 73 and 65% developed enhanced LPA and DTH responses to KLH. Forty-eight percent of patients developed a four-fold increase in antibody concentration to tetanus. Seventy-three percent of patients without detectable hepatitis A antibodies at baseline developed antibodies after immunization. Eighty-three percent of patients experienced at least a four-fold rise in KLH antibody concentration. Immune activation and viral load predicted poor recall responses and the number of memory CD4+ T-cells predicted good responses to recall antigens. Naïve CD4+ T-cell numbers, decrease in viral load, increases in CD4+ and CD28+ cells, and decreases in immune activation were associated with responses to presumed neoantigens. Most HIV-infected patients treated with potent combination antiretrovirals develop responses to recall and presumed neoantigens after immunization. Functional immune restoration in response to immunization is related to control of viral replication, decreased immune activation as well as to both quantitative and qualitative restoration of circulating T- lymphocyte subpopulations.AIDS 02/2000; 14(1):11-21. · 6.41 Impact Factor