The reliability of balance, mobility and self-care measures in a population of adults with a learning disability known to a physiotherapy service
ABSTRACT To estimate the reliability of three measures of balance, mobility and activity for use in clinical and research physiotherapy, with adults with a learning disability.
Prospective study to investigate test-retest and inter-rater reliability.
Participants' homes and day centres.
The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI) and the Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index (BI).
Of the 181 adults known to the Nottingham Community Physiotherapy Service for Adults with Learning Disabilities, 64 with a known Rivermead Mobility score of less than three were excluded. Of 117 randomized, a further 21 were found to fail this criteria, 27 had acute medical, social or behavioural problems, 22 were unable to participate or refused: therefore 47 entered the study.
Participants were visited in their own homes by two researchers on two occasions, one week apart and rated independently by each rater. Agreement was assessed with the kappa statistic (kappa) and percentage agreement for each item in each scale, and described using standard classification. Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater and test-retest total scores and average differences of total scores, their standard deviations and limits of agreement, were calculated.
For inter-rater observations, the Barthel Index and the Rivermead Mobility Index had almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.86-1.00 and 0.89-1.00 respectively), with the Berg Balance Scale having substantial to almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.74-1.00). For test-retest comparisons, both the Barthel Index and the Rivermead Mobility Index demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.57-1.00 and 0.45-1.00 respectively). Kappa scores for the Berg Balance Scale varied from low to almost perfect agreement (kappa = 0.37-1.00).
The Berg Balance Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index and Barthel Activities of Daily Living Index are all reliable clinical and research tools for physiotherapists working with adults with learning disabilities.
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ABSTRACT: A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in 602 older adults with borderline to profound ID (≥50 years). At baseline, physical fitness levels and daily functioning (operationalized as basic activities of daily living [ADL] and mobility) were assessed. After 3 years, the measurements of daily functioning were repeated. At follow-up, 12.6% of the participants were completely independent in ADL and 48.5% had no mobility limitations. More than half of the participants (54.8%) declined in their ability to perform ADL and 37.5% declined in their mobility. Manual dexterity, visual reaction time, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in ADL. For a decline in mobility, manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast walking speed, grip strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were all significant predictors. This proves the predictive validity of these physical fitness tests for daily functioning and stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and implementing physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.Research in Developmental Disabilities 06/2014; 35(10):2299-2315. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.05.027 · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A high incidence of falls is seen in people with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor balance, strength, muscular endurance, and slow gait speed, which are well-established risk factors for falls in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of these physical fitness components for falls in 724 older adults with borderline to profound ID (≥50 years). Physical fitness was assessed at baseline and data on falls was collected at baseline and after three years. Gait speed was lowest in participants who fell three times or more at follow-up. Gait speed was the only physical fitness component that significantly predicted falls, but did not remain significant after correcting for confounders. Falls at baseline and not having Down syndrome were significant predictors for falls. Extremely low physical fitness levels of older adults with ID, possible strategies to compensate for these low levels, and the finding that falls did not increase with age may explain the limited predictive value of physical fitness found in this study.Research in developmental disabilities 06/2014; 35(6):1317–1325. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.03.022 · 4.41 Impact Factor