Pkd1 regulates immortalized proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells through p53 induction and JNK activation
ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common human monogenic genetic disorder and is characterized by progressive bilateral renal cysts and the development of renal insufficiency. The cystogenesis of ADPKD is believed to be a monoclonal proliferation of PKD-deficient (PKD(-/-)) renal tubular epithelial cells. To define the function of Pkd1, we generated chimeric mice by aggregation of Pkd1(-/-) ES cells and Pkd1(+/+) morulae from ROSA26 mice. As occurs in humans with ADPKD, these mice developed cysts in the kidney, liver, and pancreas. Surprisingly, the cyst epithelia of the kidney were composed of both Pkd1(-/-) and Pkd1(+/+) renal tubular epithelial cells in the early stages of cystogenesis. Pkd1(-/-) cyst epithelial cells changed in shape from cuboidal to flat and replaced Pkd1(+/+) cyst epithelial cells lost by JNK-mediated apoptosis in intermediate stages. In late-stage cysts, Pkd1(-/-) cells continued immortalized proliferation with downregulation of p53. These results provide a novel understanding of the cystogenesis of ADPKD patients. Furthermore, immortalized proliferation without induction of p53 was frequently observed in 3T3-type culture of mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Pkd1(-/-) mice. Thus, Pkd1 plays a role in preventing immortalized proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells through the induction of p53 and activation of JNK.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Saori Nishio, Mar 27, 2015
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ABSTRACT: A tubule system is an important component of the nephron, which is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Expansion of renal tubules results in renal cysts. Hereditary forms of renal cystic diseases suggest that tubular size is determined genetically. The inv was discovered as a mutant with renal cysts and situs inversus. Inv/inv, inv deltaC::GFP (inv deltaC) mouse was created by the introduction of the inv gene lacking the C-terminus (inv deltaC) into inv/inv mice. The mouse develops multiple renal cysts without situs abnormality, giving us an opportunity to study inv function in renal tubular structure maintenance. In the present study, we showed that inv suppresses cyst progression in a dose-dependent manner and that the inv deltaC cystic kidneys showed increased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Cell cycle regulators for G1-S progression were activated in the cystic kidney. Furthermore, cDNA microarray and semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that growth-related genes maintained a high level of expression in the cystic kidney at 4 weeks of age whereas they were decreased in control kidneys, suggesting that cells in inv deltaC kidney are still active in the cell cycle. One of the inv protein functions may provide a stop signal for renal epithelial cell proliferation.Genes to Cells 11/2006; 11(10):1213-24. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.01011.x
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ABSTRACT: The majority of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cases are caused by mutations in the PKD1 gene. Ischemia/reperfusion is a frequent cause of acute kidney injury, including the ADPKD patient population, but the relationship between polycystin-1 and ischemia/reperfusion is essentially unknown. Since polycystin-1 modulates cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis in cell culture systems, its lower biological activity in ADPKD might amplify the degree of renal injury. Using an inbred 129Sv mouse line with a Pkd1-null mutation, 32-min renal ischemia/reperfusion was induced in 10-12 week-old male non-cystic mice, heterozygotes and wild types. The animals were analyzed at 48h, 7 days (d) and 14d after the insult. Pkd1+/- mice showed higher FENa, FEK and SCr than Pkd1+/+ animals at 48h of follow-up. The residual cortical damage was more severe in heterozygotes than wild types at all evaluated time points. The PCNA staining was also higher in Pkd1+/- than Pkd1+/+ mice at 48h and 7d, while cell apoptotic rates and the interstitial inflammatory infiltration were higher in heterozygotes than wild types at 48h, 7d and 14d postischemia/ reperfusion. The expression of p21 was lower in Pkd1+/- than Pkd1+/+ kidneys at 48h, both at the transcriptional and translational levels. Additional analyses performed 6 weeks after the insult showed tubular dilatation and microcyst formation in the haploinsufficient mice, and increased renal fibrosis in these animals compared to wild types. Thirty-fivemin ischemia/reperfusion, at last, was accompanied by a substantially higher early mortality of Pkd1+/- animals. These findings suggest that ischemia/reperfusion induces a more severe injury in kidneys of Pkd1- haploinsufficient mice, a process that is apparently dependent on a relative deficiency of p21 activity, as well as tubular dilatation and microcyst formation. Altogether, our results suggest that mouse Pkd1-null heterozygosity (and maybe human) is associated with a higher risk for renal ischemia/reperfusion injury and with a worse impact of this insult upon renal disease progression. A maior parte dos casos de doença renal policística autossômica dominante (DRPAD) é causada por mutações no gene PKD1 (Polycystic Kidney Disease 1). O insulto por isquemia/reperfusão (IR) constitui-se em uma causa freqüente de lesão renal aguda, incluindo a população de pacientes com DRPAD, mas a relação entre policistina-1 e IR é essencialmente desconhecida. Uma vez que a policistina-1 modula proliferação, diferenciação celular e apoptose em sistemas de cultura de células, sua menor atividade biológica na DRPAD poderia favorecer um maior grau de lesão renal. Utilizamos uma linhagem endogâmica de camundongos 129Sv com uma mutação nula em Pkd1 para testar esta hipótese. Camundongos Pkd1+/- não apresentam cistos renais até 12 semanas de vida, constituindo-se em um modelo puro de haploinsuficiência para este gene. Um insulto IR bilateral de 32 min foi induzido em camundongos machos de 10-12 semanas de idade, heterozigotos e selvagens, por meio do clampeamento reversível de ambos os pedículos renais. Os animais foram analisados 48 h, 7 dias (d) e 14 d após o insulto. Camundongos Pkd1+/- apresentaram FENa, FEK e SCr mais elevadas que animais Pkd1+/+ 48 h após IR. O dano cortical residual foi mais severo em heterozigotos que em selvagens em todos os tempos avaliados. A marcação para PCNA também foi mais alta em camundongos Pkd1+/- que Pkd1+/+ 48 h e 7 d pós-IR, enquanto a taxa de apoptose e a infiltração inflamatória intersticial foram maiores em heterozigotos que em selvagens nos seguimentos de 48 h, 7 d e 14 d pós-IR. A expressão renal de p21 foi menor nos camundongos Pkd1+/- que Pkd1+/+ no tempo de 48 h pós-insulto, tanto no nível transcricional como traducional. Análises adicionais realizadas 6 semanas após o insulto IR revelaram dilatação tubular e formação de microcistos nos camundongos haploinsuficientes para Pkd1, assim como fibrose renal aumentada nesses animais, comparados aos camundongos selvagens. Por fim, um insulto de 35 min de isquemia/reperfusão acompanhou-se de uma mortalidade precoce substancialmente maior nos animais Pkd1+/-. Esses achados sugerem que isquemia/reperfusão induza uma lesão mais severa em rins de camundongos haploinsuficientes para Pkd1, um processo aparentemente dependente de uma deficiência relativa da atividade de p21, assim como dilatação tubular e formação de microcistos. Em conjunto, nossos resultados sugerem que a heterozigose para mutação nula em Pkd1 em camundongo (e talvez em humanos) esteja associada a um risco aumentado para lesão renal por isquemia/reperfusão e a um pior impacto desse insulto sobre a progressão da doença renal.
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ABSTRACT: The author presents the technology management FTTM (fast-time-to-market) model for continuous improvement of products, processes, and services to enhance quality, reduce costs, and improve time market, productivity, and total customer satisfaction. The four components of the model are described, including the blueprint for product and service FTTM objectives and technology management; a team approach to product and service development; continuous optimization of products and services, technologies, systems, and processes; and continuous evaluation and improvement of FTTM objectives and customer satisfaction arrangement. FTTM technology management for existing and new products and services encompasses certain boundaries and limits. It involves setting the right FTTM goals and objectives, and leveraging all resources and other business assets by continuous optimization of all work processes and functions of the business enterprise. It requires managing the totality of technology operation, product, and service requirements from concept to commercialization. FTTM technology management deals with many issues that affect a firms competitivenessTechnology Management : the New International Language; 11/1991