Intracranial angioplasty without stenting for symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis: long-term follow-up.
ABSTRACT Angioplasty and stent placement have been reported for the treatment of intracranial stenosis. This study was undertaken to assess the efficacy and long-term clinical outcome of angioplasty without stent placement for patients with symptomatic intracranial stenosis.
A retrospective study was done to evaluate 36 patients with 37 symptomatic atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis who underwent primary balloon angioplasty. All patients had symptoms despite medical therapy. Thirty-four patients were available for follow-up ranging from 6 to 128 months. Mean follow-up was 52.9 months.
Mean pretreatment stenosis was 84.2% before angioplasty and 43.3% after angioplasty. The periprocedural death and stroke rate was 8.3% (two deaths and one minor stroke). Two patients had strokes in the territory of angioplasty at 2 and 37 months after angioplasty. The annual stroke rate in the territory appropriate to the site of angioplasty was 3.36%, and for those patients with a residual stenosis of > or =50% it was 4.5%. Patients with iatrogenic dissection (n=11) did not have transient ischemic attacks or strokes after treatment.
Results of long-term follow-up suggest that intracranial angioplasty without stent placement reduces the risk of further stroke in symptomatic patients.
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ABSTRACT: We sought to determine the long-term stroke-free survival of patients who present with ischemic events related to intracranial vertebrobasilar stenosis. A retrospective cohort of patients diagnosed with symptomatic vertebrobasilar stenosis on the basis of magnetic resonance angiography and/or conventional angiography was identified at four academic medical centers. Patients' clinical and follow-up information was obtained through hospitalization records, clinic visits, and telephone interviews. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to determine the rate of stroke-free survival for a 5-year period. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to determine the effect of demographic and clinical factors on stroke-free survival. A total of 102 patients were included, whose mean age was 64 +/- 12 years. Fifty-five (54%) of the patients were men. The mean follow-up period was 15 +/- 15.9 months (range, 1-60 mo). During the follow-up period, 14 (14%) of the patients experienced recurrent stroke. The overall mortality rate was 21% (n = 21). Stroke-free survival, calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier curve, was 76% at 12 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 66-83%) and 48% at 5 years (95% CI, 27-65%). The risk of recurrent stroke was 10.9 per 100 patient-years, and the rate of recurrent stroke and/or death was 24.2 per 100 patient-years. Cox proportional hazards analysis revealed that increasing age (hazards ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09) decreased stroke-free survival. Treatment with either antiplatelet agents or warfarin (hazards ratio, 0.018; 95% CI, 0.003-0.11) had a protective effect on stroke-free survival after adjusting for age, sex, race, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hyperlipidemia, and lesion location. A low rate of stroke-free survival is observed in patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar stenosis. Further studies are required to evaluate new medical and endovascular treatment options for this group of patients to improve long-term stroke-free survival.Neurosurgery 06/2003; 52(5):1033-9; discussion 1039-40. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis of the major intracranial arteries is an important cause of ischemic stroke. We established measurement criteria to assess percent stenosis of a major intracranial artery (carotid, middle cerebral, vertebral, basilar) and determined the interobserver/intraobserver agreements and interclass/intraclass correlations of these measurements. We defined percent stenosis of an intracranial artery as follows: percent stenosis = [(1 - (D(stenosis)/D(normal)))] x 100, where D(stenosis) = the diameter of the artery at the site of the most severe stenosis and D(normal) = the diameter of the proximal normal artery. If the proximal segment was diseased, contingency sites were chosen to measure D(normal): distal artery (second choice), feeding artery (third choice). Using a hand-held digital caliper, three neuroradiologists independently measured D(stenosis) and D(normal) of 24 stenotic intracranial arteries. Each observer repeated the readings 4 weeks later. We determined how frequently two observers' measurements of percent stenosis of each of the 24 diseased arteries differed by 10% or less. Among the three pairs of observers, interobserver agreements were 88% (observer 1 versus observer 2), 79% (observer 1 versus observer 3), 75% (observer 2 versus observer 3) for the first reading and were 75% (observer 1 versus observer 2), 100% (observer 1 versus observer 3), and 71% (observer 2 versus observer 3) for the second reading. Intraobserver agreement for each of the observers was 88%, 83%, and 100%. Interclass correlation was 85% (first reading) and 87% (second reading). Intraclass correlation was 92% (first and second readings combined). This method shows good interobserver and intraobserver agreements for the measurement of intracranial stenosis of a major artery. If validated in subsequent studies, this method may serve as a standard for the measurement of percent stenosis of an intracranial artery.American Journal of Neuroradiology 05/2000; 21(4):643-6. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The safe performance of percutaneous transluminal cerebral angioplasty for intracranial atherosclerotic lesions requires that the risk of complications, such as acute occlusion or symptomatic dissection, and restenosis be reduced. Our purpose was to assess the effectiveness, safety, and short-term arteriographic and clinical outcome of cerebral angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for intracranial vertebrobasilar and distal internal carotid atherosclerotic occlusive lesions. Between March 1998 and November 1998, 10 patients with 12 intracranial atherosclerotic lesions of the vertebrobasilar artery and the distal internal carotid artery underwent treatment with flexible balloon-expandable coronary stents. Although in two of the 10 patients CAS was not successful because of the inability to access the site of arterial stenosis, 10 lesions in eight patients were successfully dilated with stents. No complications occurred during or after the procedure and no neurologic ischemic events or restenoses occurred during the follow-up period. CAS appears to be a safe and effective means for treating intracranial atherosclerotic occlusive disease, yielding a favorable arteriographic and clinical outcome.American Journal of Neuroradiology 03/2000; 21(2):249-54. · 3.17 Impact Factor