Relationship of seminal plasma level and extender type to sperm motility and DNA integrity.
ABSTRACT The relationship between seminal plasma level (0, 10, or 20%) and extender type [Kenney type (EZ-Mixin-CST) or Kenney-modified Tyrodes-KMT] to the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and sperm motility measures were investigated in cooled (5 degrees C) stallion sperm. Three ejaculates from each of three fertile stallions were collected in an artificial vagina and processed as follows: diluted one part uncentrifuged semen with four parts of extender to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma in either CST or KMT (20% CST; 20% KMT); diluted to a final concentration of 25 million sperm/mL in either CST or KMT (10% CST; 10% KMT); centrifuged to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended in either CST or KMT (0% CST-Cent; 0% KMT-Cent); centrifuged semen to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended with previously filtered seminal plasma from the same stallion in either CST or KMT to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma (20% CST-Cent; 20% KMT-Cent). Sperm motion characteristics were determined by CASA and DNA integrity (%COMP, percent of cells outside the main population) evaluated by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay prior to cooling, and after 24 and 48 h cooled-storage at 5 degrees C. After 48 h of storage at 5 degrees C, extenders with 0% seminal plasma (0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent) maintained highest quality DNA (P < 0.05), but 0% KMT-Cent maintained higher velocity measures (P < 0.05) than 0% CST-Cent. Total sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent, 10% CST, 20% CST-Cent, and 20% CST compared to the other treatment groups. Progressive sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) after 48 h of storage in the treatment with 10% seminal plasma in Kenney extender (10% CST), despite a reduction in DNA integrity. Regardless of extender type, addition of 20% seminal plasma following centrifugation resulted in almost a two-fold increase in %COMP(alpha t), even though one of the treatments (20% CST-Cent) maintained total and progressive motility similar to treatments with no seminal plasma, suggesting that sperm motility and DNA integrity may respond independently to environmental conditions. Overall, better quality sperm features (motility and DNA) were maintained in sperm from which seminal plasma was removed followed by resuspension in either Kenney extender or modified Kenney Tyrodes-type extender.
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ABSTRACT: Canine epididymal spermatozoa have a low freeze-tolerance ability compared with ejaculated spermatozoa, which could arise from the absence of prostatic fluid (PF). Therefore, the purpose of this work was to elucidate the influence of PF on the quality of canine epididymal sperm before and after freezing. Caudae epididymides were retrieved from eight dogs after routine castration. Spermatozoa were released by slicing the tissue and were extended in either Tris solution or PF before freezing. Frozen sperm samples were thawed at 70 °C for 8 seconds in a waterbath. Sperm concentration, motility using computer-assisted sperm analysis, morphology, plasma membrane, acrosome and chromatin integrity were assessed in the fresh sperm samples (after 20 minutes incubation) and at 0 and 4 hours after thawing. Progressive motility, distance straight line, distance average path, average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity, straightness, linearity, wobble, and beat cross frequency were significantly increased after extraction into PF. There was a higher proportion of spermatozoa with DNA damage in the PF treatment group at 4 hours after thawing than in the Tris treatment group (15.8% vs. 6.7%, P < 0.05). These results suggest that the addition of PF to canine spermatozoa activates sperm motility in fresh spermatozoa but has a negative effect on chromatin integrity after freezing-thawing.Theriogenology 08/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was designed to investigate if the characteristics of feline urethral sperm can be affected by high dilution in an artificial medium. The semen collected by urethral catheterization from eight male cats was evaluated for sperm concentration and motility and subsequently diluted with a TRIS-based extender to the concentration of spermatozoa 10 × 10(6)/mL, 5 × 10(6)/mL, and 1 × 10(6)/mL. Immediately after the extension samples were assessed for motility, cell viability using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide, acrosome integrity using lectin from Arachis hypogaea Alexa Fluor 488 Conjugate, and propidium iodide and chromatin status by acridine orange. Compared with 10 × 10(6)/mL dilution rate, spermatozoa diluted to 1 × 10(6) sperm/mL had a significantly lower proportion of motile (31.1% ± 19.8 and 0.7% ± 1.6, respectively, P < 0.05) and viable spermatozoa (88.3% ± 3.1 and 69.1% ± 12.8, respectively, P < 0.01). There was no dilution-related difference in the acrosome integrity (76.7% ± 11.9 vs. 75.9% ± 10.6) and chromatin status (defragmentation index, 3.3% ± 0.97 vs. 3.4% ± 1.7). These results indicate that feline urethral semen is susceptible to high dilution rate, and some sperm characteristics can be artifactually changed by semen dilution. It also suggests the potential role of seminal plasma in maintaining sperm motility and viability in high dilution rates.Theriogenology 08/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dilution of semen to less than 20 × 10(6) sperm/mL has been reported to decrease sperm quality in multiple species, a phenomenon known as the semen "dilution effect." Critical evaluation of stallion semen diluted to these concentrations, however, has not been reported. This study evaluated sperm motion characteristics (percent total motility [TMOT], percent progressive motility [PMOT], curvilinear velocity [μm/s], and percent straightness) and plasma membrane integrity (percent plasma membrane intact [PMI]) in semen samples diluted to 2.5 × 10(6) sperm/mL with the addition of 0%, 7.5%, or 25% seminal plasma (groups T-2.5/0, T-2.5/7.5, and T-2.5/25, respectively), or after simple dilution to 30 × 10(6) sperm/mL (group T-30), or simple dilution to a ratio of 3:1 (extender:semen; group T-3:1SD). Evaluations were performed immediately after semen collection (T0), and after 24 and 48 hours of cooled storage (T24 and T48, respectively). The PMI and TMOT were the highest in group T-3:1SD at T0. At T24, the PMI in groups T-30, T3:1SD and T3:1/30, and T-2.5/0 were higher than that in the other groups (P < 0.05), whereas TMOT in group T-3:1SD was higher (P < 0.05) than that in all other groups except T-30. By T48, no difference was detected for PMI among groups T-3:1SD, T-30, and T-2.5/0; for TMOT among groups T-3:1SD, T-30, and T-2.5/0, and T-2.5/7.5 (P > 0.05), whereas PMOT was the highest in groups T-2.5/0 and T-2.5/7.5 (P < 0.05). These findings revealed that treatments in which semen was diluted to a concentration of 2.5 × 10(6) sperm/mL had lower initial PMI, TMOT, and PMOT, but semen quality did not decline after 24 and 48 hours of cooled storage. In this study, TMOT and PMI in dilute semen were less than those in more concentrated semen at T0. This effect, while significant, was small and less apparent after cooled storage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Theriogenology 11/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor