Pharmacotherapy for alcohol-related disorders: what clinicians should know.
ABSTRACT Alcohol-related disorders are a major public health problem in the United States. Alcohol interacts with several neurotransmitter systems causing both acute and chronic effects in the brain. While the mainstay of treatment of alcohol-related disorders, with the exception of alcohol withdrawal, has historically been psychosocial, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being investigated and incorporated into standard clinical practice. Patients with alcohol use disorders and comorbid psychiatric conditions, most commonly depressive and anxiety disorders, can benefit from symptom-targeted pharmacotherapy, even if the patient fails to achieve abstinence from alcohol. Although benzodiazepines remain the treatment of choice to treat alcohol withdrawal, a variety of other agents is being investigated, particularly in the outpatient setting. Further randomized clinical trials of alcohol-related disorder pharmacotherapy, particularly of comorbid subpopulations, are needed to better inform clinical decision making. The routine exclusion of alcohol-dependent patients from pharmacotherapy trials of psychiatric disorders presents a barrier to gathering more data. Recommendations for future research are discussed.
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Conference Paper: Optimal wire-sizing formula under the Elmore delay model[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In this paper, we consider non-uniform wire-sizing. Given a wire segment of length L, let f(x) be the width of the wire at position x, O⩽x⩽L. We show that the optimal wire-sizing function that minimizes the El more delay through the wire as f(x)=ae<sup>-bx </sup>, where a>0 and b>0 are constants that can be computed an O(1) time. In the case where lower bound (L>0) and upper bound (U>0) on the wire widths are given, we show that the optimal wire-sizing function f(x) is a truncated version of ae<sup>-bx</sup> that can also be determined an O(1) time. Our wire-sizing formula can be iteratively applied to optimally size the wire segments in a routing treeDesign Automation Conference Proceedings 1996, 33rd; 07/1996