Mutations N34S and P55S of the SPINK1 gene in patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer and in healthy subjects: a report from Finland.
ABSTRACT Mutations in the Kazal type 1 serine protease inhibitor (SPINK1) gene have recently been associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP), an established risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of the SPINK1 gene mutations (N34S and P55S) in patients with CP, or pancreatic cancer, and in healthy subjects in Finland.
The N34S and P55S mutations were determined by PCR amplification followed by solid-phase minisequencing in 116 patients with CP and in 188 with pancreatic cancer. In patients with CP, alcohol was the aetiological factor in 87 (75%), pancreas divisum in 4 (3%), gallstones in 5 (5%) and 20 patients (17%) had an idiopathic disease; 459 healthy individuals were enrolled as controls.
The frequency of the N34S mutation was significantly higher in patients with CP (14/116, 12%) than in controls (12/459, 2.6%) (p<0.0001). There was no difference in the frequency of the P55S mutation between patients with CP (1/116, 0.9%) and controls (6/459, 1.3%). The N34S mutation was present in 9 (10%) out of 87 patients with alcoholic CP, and in 5 (25%) patients with idiopathic CP. No SPINK1 mutations were found in patients with CP caused by anatomical variations or gallstones. Among the 188 patients with a pancreatic malignant tumour, the N34S mutation was present in 7 cases (3.7%). The frequency of the N34S mutation in healthy controls in this study was significantly higher than earlier reported in other countries (p=0.03).
The SPINK1 N34S mutation was significantly associated with an increased risk of CP. The association of the N34S mutation with alcoholic CP was marginally stronger than in earlier studies, whereas in the Finnish population in general, this mutation was significantly more frequent than reported elsewhere.
Article: Pathways to injury in chronic pancreatitis: decoding the role of the high-risk SPINK1 N34S haplotype using meta-analysis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The complex interactions between recurrent trypsin-mediated pancreatic injury, alcohol-associated pancreatic injury and SPINK1 polymorphisms in chronic pancreatitis (CP) are undefined. We hypothesize that CP occurs as a result of multiple pathological mechanisms (pathways) that are initiated by different metabolic or environmental factors (etiologies) and may be influenced differentially by downstream genetic risk factors. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the differences in effect size of the high risk SPINK1 N34S haplotype on CP from multiple etiologies after combining clinical reports of SPINK1 N34S frequency using meta-analysis. The Pubmed and the Embase databases were reviewed. We studied 24 reports of SPINK1 N34S in CP (2,421 cases, 4,857 controls) using reported etiological factors as surrogates for pathways and multiple meta-analyses to determine the differential effects of SPINK1 N34S between alcoholic and non-alcoholic etiologies. Using estimates of between-study heterogeneity, we sub-classified our 24 studies into four specific clusters. We found that SPINK1 N34S is strongly associated with CP overall (OR 11.00; 95% CI: 7.59-15.93), but the effect of SPINK1 N34S in alcoholic CP (OR 4.98, 95% CI: 3.16-7.85) was significantly smaller than in idiopathic CP (OR 14.97, 95% C.I. = 9.09-24.67) or tropical CP (OR 19.15, 95% C.I. = 8.83-41.56). Studies analyzing familial CP showed very high heterogeneity suggestive of a complex etiology with an I(2) = 80.95%. The small effect of SPINK1 N34S in alcoholic subjects suggests that CP is driven through a different pathway that is largely trypsin-independent. The results also suggest that large effect sizes of SPINK1 N34S in small candidate gene studies in CP may be related to a mixture of multiple etiologic pathways leading to the same clinical endpoint.PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(4):e2003. · 4.09 Impact Factor