Nuclear medicine in the detection and management of pancreatic islet-cell tumours.
ABSTRACT Over the last decade somatostatin receptor scintigraphy using various derivatives of long-acting somatostatin analogues has gained its place in the management of pancreatic islet-cell tumours. Scintigraphy is based on the high-affinity binding of such somatostatin analogues to receptors over-expressed by these tumour types. Following the introduction of (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide, clinical studies with radiolabelled DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotide and DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotate derivatives have shown considerable improvement of imaging results with increased tumour uptake. One of the newer developments, (68)Ga-labelled DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotide, has shown promising results in patients with pancreatic islet-cell tumours, based on the high-affinity binding to the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 in combination with positron emission tomography (PET) technology. Other peptides--such as ligands for the gastrin/CCK2 receptors or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)--have also been studied for imaging pancreatic cell tumours. Whereas small-sized gastrinoma, somatostatinoma, glucagonoma, carcinoid and VIPoma are frequently detected by somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, insulinoma may escape detection due to reduced receptor expression. Following peptide receptor scintigraphy, a change in patient management is reported in up to 30% of patients. When labelled with (90)Y or (177)Lu, some somatostatin analogues have been applied to patients in advanced stages of the disease. Despite positive response data in 50% of patients, long-term results and survival rates are lacking.
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ABSTRACT: Study design: Case report.Clinical question: To report successful surgical therapy for spinal cord compression in a patient with spinal metastases from a pancreatic gastrinoma.Methods: A 43-year-old man presented three times within 4 years with cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord compression because of metastatic gastrinoma. He had two previous spine metastases to the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, a T11 compressive lesion which required a T9L1 fusion, and an L4 lesion that was treated with chemotherapy and stereotactic radiation. The compression was relieved each time by surgery.Results: The patient underwent three surgeries in 4 years: (1) debulking and removal of the rib head on the left at T3, and debulking of the tumor at T3 with hemilaminectomy and spinal cord decompression with internal fixation from T1-T5 using posterolateral instrumented fusion and allograft; (2) anterior C7 corpectomy with placement of a cage from C7-T1 with both anterior and posterior fusion of C2C7; and (3) T1-T3 laminectomy, T1-T3 exploration of wound, revision of hardware, T1-T3 removal of spinal tumor, and T3 bilateral transpedicular circumferential decompression. The patient is alive and regained the ability to walk 8 years after initial diagnosis, despite the appearance of spinal metastases 1 year after the diagnosis of liver metastases.Conclusion: Surgery for spinal cord compression in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumors can be effective in relieving radicular pain, weakness and numbness, and while not curative can greatly improve quality of life.Evidence-based spine-care journal. 11/2011; 2(4):45-50.
Article: NANETS treatment guidelines: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors of the stomach and pancreas.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach and pancreas represent 2 major subtypes of gastrointestinal NETs. Historically, there has been little consensus on the classification and management of patients with these tumor subtypes. We provide an overview of well-differentiated NETs of the stomach and pancreas and describe consensus guidelines for the treatment of patients with these malignancies.Pancreas 08/2010; 39(6):735-52. · 2.39 Impact Factor
Article: Hypoglycemic syndrome in a patient with proinsulin-only secreting pancreatic adenoma (proinsulinoma).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We describe an unusual case of hypoglycemic syndrome in a 69-year old woman with a proinsulin-only secreting pancreatic endocrine adenoma. The clinical history was highly suggestive of an organic hypoglycemia, with normal or relatively low insulin concentrations and elevated proinsulin levels. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography of the abdomen showed a 1 cm pancreatic nodule and multiple accessory spleens. The diagnosis was confirmed by selective angiography, showing location and vascularization of the nodule, despite no response to intra-arterial calcium. After resection, the hypoglycemic syndrome resolved. The surgical specimen was comprised of a neuroendocrine adenomatous tissue with high proinsulin immunoreactivity. Study of this unusual case of proinsulinoma underlines (i) the need to assay proinsulin in patients with hypoglycemia and normal immunoreactive insulin, (ii) the differential diagnosis in the presence of accessory spleens, (iii) the unresponsiveness to intra-arterial calcium stimulation, and (iv) the extensive evaluation needed to reach a final diagnosis.Case Reports in Medicine 01/2011; 2011:930904.