Article

Clostridium difficile toxoid vaccine in recurrent C. difficile-associated diarrhea.

Gastroenterology Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, 02215,USA.
Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 13.93). 03/2005; 128(3):764-70. DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2004.11.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recurrent C difficile -associated diarrhea (CDAD) is associated with a lack of protective immunity to C difficile toxins. A parenteral C difficile vaccine containing toxoid A and toxoid B was reported previously to be safe and immunogenic in healthy volunteers. Our aim was to examine whether the vaccine is also well tolerated and immunogenic in patients with recurrent CDAD.
Subjects received 4, 50-microg intramuscular inoculations of the C difficile vaccine over an 8-week period. Serum antitoxin antibodies were measured by ELISA, and toxin neutralizing activity was evaluated using the tissue culture cytotoxin assay.
Three patients with multiple episodes of recurrent CDAD were vaccinated. Two of the 3 showed an increase in serum IgG antitoxin A antibodies (3-fold and 4-fold increases, respectively) and in serum IgG antitoxin B antibodies (52-fold and 20-fold, respectively). Both also developed cytotoxin neutralizing activity against toxin A and toxin B. Prior to vaccination, the subjects had required nearly continuous treatment with oral vancomycin for 7, 9, and 22 months, respectively, to treat recurrent episodes of CDAD. After vaccination, all 3 subjects discontinued treatment with oral vancomycin without any further recurrence.
A C difficile toxoid vaccine induced immune responses to toxins A and B in patients with CDAD and was associated with resolution of recurrent diarrhea. The results of this study support the feasibility of active vaccination against C difficile and its toxins in high-risk individuals but must be validated in larger, randomized, controlled trials.

0 Followers
 · 
164 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has garnered significant attention in recent years in the face of a reemerging Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) epidemic. Positive results from the first randomized control trial evaluating FMT have encouraged the medical community to explore the process further and expand its application beyond C. difficile infections and even the gastrointestinal domain. However promising and numerous the prospects of FMT appear, the method remains limited in scope today due to several important barriers, most notably a poorly defined federal regulatory policy. The Food and Drug Administration has found it difficult to standardize and regulate the administration of inherently variable, metabolically active, and ubiquitously available fecal material. The current cumbersome policy, which classifies human feces as a drug, has prevented physicians from providing FMT and deserving patients from accessing FMT in a timely fashion, and subsequent modifications seem only to be temporary. The argument for reclassifying fecal material as human tissue is well supported. Essentially, this would allow for a regulatory framework that is sufficiently flexible to expand access to care and facilitate research, but also appropriately restrictive and centralized to ensure patient safety. Such an approach can facilitate the advancement of FMT to a more refined, controlled, and aesthetic process, perhaps in the form of a customized and well-characterized stool substitute therapy.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 21(1):6-11. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i1.6 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased in incidence and severity over the past quarter century, and is now considered a major cause of healthcare-associated infections. Methods: Review of the pertinent English-language medical literature. Results: There has been a substantial change in the management of CDI. The emergence of the NAP1/BI/O27 strain in the early to mid-2000s has been associated with more severe forms of CDI. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis, as well as new strategies for medical and surgical management are discussed in this review. Conclusions: Clostridium difficile infection can range from benign diarrhea to severe disease associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment modalities vary based on disease severity and timing of onset. The mainstay of medical treatment remains metronidazole and oral/rectal vancomycin. New management strategies are evolving, including adjunctive treatments such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccination, and fecal transplant. In patients with severe disease or clinical deterioration, early surgical consultation for total colectomy or loop ileostomy may be life-saving. Infection control measures are vital to mitigating the spread of CDI.
    Surgical Infections 10/2014; 15(5):490-502. DOI:10.1089/sur.2013.186 · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of infection worldwide and is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in vulnerable patient populations. Metronidazole and oral vancomycin are the currently recommended therapies for the treatment of C. difficile infection (CDI) but are associated with unacceptably high rates of disease recurrence. Novel therapies for the treatment of CDI and prevention of recurrent CDI are urgently needed. Important developments in the treatment of CDI are currently underway and include: novel antibacterial agents with narrower antimicrobial spectra of activity, manipulation of the gut microbiota and enhancement of the host antibody immune response.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
73 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014