Antidepressant Treatment Improves Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy Among Depressed HIV-Infected Patients

Denver Public Health Department, Denver Health, Denver, CO 80204, USA.
JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Impact Factor: 4.56). 05/2005; 38(4):432-8. DOI: 10.1097/01.qai.0000147524.19122.fd
Source: PubMed


Antiretroviral regimens for HIV-infected patients require strict adherence. Untreated depression has been associated with medication nonadherence. We proposed to evaluate the effect of antidepressant treatment (ADT) on antiretroviral adherence.
Data were retrieved for HIV-infected patients seen at an urban health care setting (1997-2001) from chart review and administrative and pharmacy files. Antiretroviral adherence was determined for depressed patients stratified by receipt of and adherence to ADT. Antiretroviral adherence was compared before and after initiation of ADT.
Of 1713 HIV-infected patients, 57% were depressed; of those, 46% and 52% received ADT and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. Antiretroviral adherence was lower among depressed patients not on ADT (vs. those on ADT; P = 0.012). Adherence to antiretroviral treatment was higher among patients adherent to ADT (vs. those nonadherent to antidepressant treatment; P = 0.0014). Antiretroviral adherence improved over a 6-month period for adherent, nonadherent, and nonprescribed ADT groups; however, the mean pre- versus post-6-month change in antiretroviral adherence was significantly greater for those prescribed antidepressants.
Depression was common, and antiretroviral adherence was higher for depressed patients prescribed and adherent to ADT compared with those neither prescribed nor adherent to ADT. Attention to diagnosis and treatment of depressive disorders in this population may improve antiretroviral adherence and ultimate survival.

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    • "Figure 1 shows the study selection process. In total, 207 studies were included in our analysis, reporting on 103,836 patients [16-222]. Two hundred studies consisted of one independent sample for calculating effect sizes, five studies consisted of two samples and two studies consisted of three samples, resulting in a total of 216 independent samples (k = 216). "
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    ABSTRACT: Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a key predictor of the success of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment, and is potentially amenable to intervention. Insight into predictors or correlates of non-adherence to ART may help guide targets for the development of adherence-enhancing interventions. Our objective was to review evidence on predictors/correlates of adherence to ART, and to aggregate findings into quantitative estimates of their impact on adherence. We searched PubMed for original English-language papers, published between 1996 and June 2014, and the reference lists of all relevant articles found. Studies reporting on predictors/correlates of adherence of adults prescribed ART for chronic HIV infection were included without restriction to adherence assessment method, study design or geographical location. Two researchers independently extracted the data from the same papers. Random effects models with inverse variance weights were used to aggregate findings into pooled effects estimates with 95% confidence intervals. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was used as the common effect size. The impact of study design features (adherence assessment method, study design, and the United Nations Human Development Index (HDI) of the country in which the study was set) was investigated using categorical mixed effects meta-regression. In total, 207 studies were included. The following predictors/correlates were most strongly associated with adherence: adherence self-efficacy (SMD = 0.603, P = 0.001), current substance use (SMD = −0.395, P = 0.001), concerns about ART (SMD = −0.388, P = 0.001), beliefs about the necessity/utility of ART (SMD = 0.357, P = 0.001), trust/satisfaction with the HIV care provider (SMD = 0.377, P = 0.001), depressive symptoms (SMD = −0.305, P = 0.001), stigma about HIV (SMD = −0.282, P = 0.001), and social support (SMD = 0.237, P = 0.001). Smaller but significant associations were observed for the following being prescribed a protease inhibitor-containing regimen (SMD = −0.196, P = 0.001), daily dosing frequency (SMD = −0.193, P = 0.001), financial constraints (SMD −0.187, P = 0.001) and pill burden (SMD = −0.124, P = 0.001). Higher trust/satisfaction with the HIV care provider, a lower daily dosing frequency, and fewer depressive symptoms were more strongly related with higher adherence in low and medium HDI countries than in high HDI countries. These findings suggest that adherence-enhancing interventions should particularly target psychological factors such as self-efficacy and concerns/beliefs about the efficacy and safety of ART. Moreover, these findings suggest that simplification of regimens might have smaller but significant effects.
    BMC Medicine 08/2014; 12(1):142. DOI:10.1186/PREACCEPT-1453408941291432 · 7.25 Impact Factor
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    • "Clinical depression, as diagnosed by structured clinical interviews, generally ranges from 10 to 20% among PLWHIV in SSA [22-24], while an additional 20 to 30% have elevated depressive symptoms [23-27]. A wide range of interventions are effective in treating depression in PLWHIV [28], including antidepressants [29,30], and depression treatment improves ART use, adherence and outcomes [31-34]. Yet despite the prevalence of depression and its consequences for the fight against HIV, depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs in SSA [35]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda. Methods/Design INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model. Discussion If effective and resource-efficient, the task-shifting, protocolized model will provide an approach to building the capacity for sustainable integration of depression treatment in HIV care settings across sub-Saharan Africa and improving key public health outcomes. Trial registration INDEPTH-Uganda has been registered with the National Institutes of Health sponsored clinical trials registry (3 February 2013) and has been assigned the identifier NCT02056106.
    Trials 06/2014; 15(1):248. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-248 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Observational studies have suggested that treatment of depression would result in improved treatment adherence[21]–[23]. However, a recent study of directly observed fluoxetine to treat depression in HIV resulted in improvements in depressive symptoms, but no change in HIV treatment outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression and depressive symptoms predict poor adherence to medical therapy, but the association is complex, nonspecific, and difficult to interpret. Understanding this association may help to identify the mechanism explaining the results of interventions that improve both medical therapy adherence and depressive symptoms as well as determine the importance of targeting depression in adherence interventions. We previously demonstrated that Managed Problem Solving (MAPS) focused on HIV medication adherence improved adherence and viral load in patients initiating a new antiretroviral regimen. Here, we assessed whether MAPS improved depressive symptoms and in turn, whether changes in depressive symptoms mediated changes in adherence and treatment outcomes. We compared MAPS to usual care with respect to presence of depressive symptoms during the trial using logistic regression. We then assessed whether MAPS' effect on depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between MAPS and adherence and virologic outcomes using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Mediation was defined by the disappearance of the mathematical association between MAPS and the outcomes when the proposed mediator was included in regression models. Although MAPS participants had a lower rate of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.21-0.93), there was no evidence of mediation of the effects of MAPS on adherence and virological outcome by improvements in depression. Thus, interventions for medication adherence may not need to address depressive symptoms in order to impact both adherence and depression; this remains to be confirmed, however, in other data.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84952. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084952 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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