Multi-analyte procedures for screening for and quantification of drugs in blood, plasma, or serum by liquid chromatography-single stage or tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS or LC-MS/MS) relevant to clinical and forensic toxicology.
ABSTRACT This paper reviews multi-analyte procedures for screening and quantification of drugs in blood, plasma, or serum using liquid chromatography coupled with a single stage or tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS, LC-MS/MS). These procedures are relevant tools in clinical and forensic toxicology, and cover analysis of amphetamines, cocaine, hallucinogens, opioids, anesthetics, hypnotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, neuroleptics, antihistamines, sulfonylurea-type antidiabetics, beta-blockers, and other cardiac drugs. Basic information on the procedures is given in two tables and multi-analyte screening, identification, and quantification are illustrated in three figures. A critical discussion on the pros and cons of such LC-MS procedures is also included.
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ABSTRACT: Hair has become an important matrix for drug analysis, complementary to blood and urine as a matrix. A prolonged detection window makes hair analysis suitable for the detection of exposure to illegal and medicinal drugs for periods up to 12 months. In the present study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for drug screening in hair was developed and validated. To 20 mg of hair, 0.45 mL of acetonitrile/25 mM formic acid (5:95 v/v) and 50 microL of deuterated internal standards were added, and the sample was incubated in a water bath at 37 degrees C for 18 h. LC separation was achieved with a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (2.1 x 100 mm, 3.5-microm particle). Mass detection was performed by positive ion mode electrospray LC-MS-MS and included the following drugs/metabolites: nicotine, cotinine, morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymeth-amphetamine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, 7-aminonitrazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, oxazepam, diazepam, alprazolam, zopiclone, zolpidem, carisoprodol, meprobamate, buprenorphine, and methadone. Within- and between-assay relative standard deviations varied from 2.0% to 12% and 2.7% to 15%, respectively. The accuracies were in the range of -24% to 16%, and recoveries ranged from 25% to 100%. The LC-MS-MS method proved to be simple and robust for the determination of drugs in hair. It has been used for authentic samples in our laboratory in the past year.Journal of analytical toxicology 07/2008; 32(5):364-72. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Blood, oral fluid (saliva), urine and hair are the most commonly used biological matrices for drug testing in epidemiological drug research. Other biological matrices may also be used for selected purposes. Blood re-flects recent drug intake and may be used to assess impairment. Oral fluid reflects drug presence in blood and thereby also recent intake, but drug concentrations in this matrix cannot be used to accurately estimate con-centrations in blood. Urine reflects drug use during the last few days and in some cases for a longer period, but does not indicate the dose size or frequency of use. Hair reflects drug use during several months, but is a poor matrix for detecting use of cannabis. If using a single drug dose, this can be detected in blood and urine if the sample is taken within the detection timeframes, in most cases also in oral fluid. Single drug use is most often insufficient for producing a positive test result in a sample of hair. For cocaine and amphetamine, weekly use may be needed, while for cannabis a positive result is not guaranteed even after daily use. Refusal rates are lowest for oral fluid and highest for blood and hair samples. The analytical costs are lowest for urine and highest for hair. Combined use of questionnaires/interviews and drug testing detects more drug use than when using only one of those methods and is therefore expected to give more accurate data.Norsk Epidemiologi 01/2011; 21(1):5--14.
Article: Screening and quantification of antipsychotic drugs in human brain tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to postmortem diagnostics of forensic interest.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A quantitative LC-MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 17 antipsychotic drugs in human postmortem brain tissue. Sample preparation was performed using Hybrid Solid Phase Extraction-Precipitation technology for the removal of endogenous protein and phospholipid interferences. The chromatographic separation was performed for 16 min on a C8 column, which used a gradient elution of formate ammonium and acetonitrile, and a flow rate gradient. Triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was employed to generate tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) data of the target analytes to select the ion m/z signals. Quantitation of the analytes was performed by operating in the dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (dMRM) mode using an electrospray ionization interface. Calibration curves prepared in the spiked brain tissue were linear in the range 20-8000 ng/g (r(2)>0.993) for all drugs (except olanzapine). Within- and between-day coefficients of variation were lower than 25% for all drugs at the LOQ. The LOQ in the matrix ranged between 2 ng/g and 80 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the unequivocal identification and accurate quantification of antipsychotic drugs in human postmortem brain tissues: therefore, this method can be used in forensic investigations.Forensic science international 01/2012; 219(1-3):172-8. · 2.10 Impact Factor