Clostridium difficile--associated diarrhea.
ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile infection is responsible for approximately 3 million cases of diarrhea and colitis annually in the United States. The mortality rate is 1 to 2.5 percent. Early diagnosis and prompt aggressive treatment are critical in managing C. difficile-associated diarrhea. Major predisposing factors for symptomatic C. difficile colitis include antibiotic therapy; advanced age; multiple, severe underlying diseases; and a faulty immune response to C. difficile toxins. The most common confirmatory study is an enzyme immunoassay for C. difficile toxins A and B. The test is easy to perform, and results are available in two to four hours. Specificity of the assay is high (93 to 100 percent), but sensitivity ranges from 63 to 99 percent. In severe cases, flexible sigmoidoscopy can provide an immediate diagnosis. Treatment of C. difficile-associated diarrhea includes discontinuation of the precipitating antibiotic (if possible) and the administration of metronidazole or vancomycin. Preventive measures include the judicious use of antibiotics, thorough hand washing between patient contacts, use of precautions when handling an infected patient or items in the patient's immediate environment, proper disinfection of objects, education of staff members, and isolation of the patient.
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ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, strictly anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium. It is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitals and other healthcare facilities and is of significant concern because of the increasing morbidity and mortality rates as well as increased health care costs. Spectrum of presentation of Clostridium difficile infection ranges from mild, self-limiting diarrhea, to serious diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis and life-threatening fulminant colitis, which may result in death. Prompt identification of patients with symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection is essential as the majority of patients respond quickly to antimicrobial therapy. Prevention is best accomplished by implementation of infection-control measures and by judicious use of antimicrobial agents.Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 09/2014; 7:S6–S13. · 0.50 Impact Factor
- Annals of Long Term Care. 06/2011; 19(6):28-32.
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ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is currently a leading cause of antibiotic and health care-related diarrhea. The incidence and the severity of CDI-related diarrhea have increased dramatically in the USA and Europe in the past few decades. The emergence of multidrug-resistant hypervirulent strains of C. difficile has led to an increase in mortality. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) (also known as fecal bacteriotherapy) has been utilized sporadically since the 1950s; and currently, the interest in using FMT has grown again in the past few years for the treatment of CDI and other chronic gastrointestinal diseases. FMT has shown to be effective, cheap, and has very few side effects. It is believed to manipulate and restore the gut microbiota, and therefore enhances the growth of "healthy" bacteria that break the cycle of recurrent CDI. This article focus on the recent case reports on FMT, and general approach to patients undergoing this therapy. Data were obtained through a literature search via PubMed and Google.North American journal of medical sciences. 06/2013; 5(6):339-43.